Evaluation of the Effect of Global Positioning System (GPS) Simplistic Spoofing Attacks on GPS Perfo...
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Evaluation of the Effect of Global Positioning System (GPS) Simplistic Spoofing Attacks on GPS Performance. Introduction. Increasing use for PNT applications: Positioning Navigation Timing. GNSS Vulnerabilities. Ionospheric delay Tropospheric delay Satellite clock error Ephemeris error

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Introduction 4864767

Evaluation of the Effect of Global Positioning System (GPS) Simplistic Spoofing Attacks on GPS Performance


Introduction

Introduction

Increasing use for PNT applications:

  • Positioning

  • Navigation

  • Timing


Gnss vulnerabilities

GNSS Vulnerabilities

  • Ionospheric delay

  • Tropospheric delay

  • Satellite clock error

  • Ephemeris error

  • Signal error

  • LOS blockage

  • Receiver noise

  • Dilution of precision

  • Jamming

  • Spoofing


Gnss spoofing

Forging and transmission of navigation messages in order to manipulate the navigation solutions of GNSS receivers

Even if a spoofer is not fully successful, he/she can still create significant errors and jam GNSS signals over large areas

GNSS Spoofing


Gnss spoofing1

GPS spoofing used to trick a British vessel into Chinese waters

GNSS Spoofing


Gnss spoofing2

GNSS Spoofing


Gnss spoofing3

GNSS Spoofing


Gnss spoofing4

GNSS Spoofing


Gnss spoofing5

A number of GNSS simulators have been designed for legal purposes

In the wrong hands, can be used for spoofing

GNSS Spoofing


Gnss spoofing6

GNSS simulators can be built with relatively low cost equipment

GNSS Spoofing


Gnss spoofing7

The spoofing threat continuum

GNSS Spoofing


Gnss spoofing8

Meaconing

GNSS Spoofing

  • GNSS record and playback systems record real GNSS signals and retransmit the signals to evaluated GNSS receivers.

  • While spoofing using this method cannot be used to impose user-defined scenarios on a receiver, it can still cause the receiver to compute false location fixes using the transmitted real GNSS signals.

  • Furthermore, this form of attack can be used for spoofing military GNSS signals


Gnss spoofing9

GNSS Spoofing


Gnss spoofing10

GNSS Spoofing


Objectives

Objectives

  • This study is aimed at evaluating GPS performance during simplistic GPS spoofing attacks.

  • Spoofing is conducted using a standalone GPS simulator, which at present poses the greatest near-term threat.

  • In this type of spoofing attack, the spoofing signal is not synchronised (in terms of power level, phase, Doppler shift and data content) with the genuine signals received by the target GPS receiver.

  • This could cause the target GPS receiver to temporarily lose position fix lock first, before being taken over by the spoofing signal.


Methodology

Methodology

Test Setup

Test area located at

N 2º 58.056’ E 101º 48.586’ 70m


Methodology1

Methodology

Test Scenario

  • Test area located at N 2º 58.056’ E 101º 48.586’ 70m

  • The spoofing signal is set for position of N 2º 58’ E 101º 48’ 80m, while the time is set at the simulator’s GPS receiver’s time.


Results discussion

Results & Discussion

The effect of GPS spoofing attacks

Evaluated GPS receiver

Reference GPS receiver


Results discussion1

Results & Discussion

The effect of spoofing on GPS accuracy

Evaluated GPS receiver

Reading 2

Reading 3

Reading 1

Reading 5

Reading 6

Reading 4


Results discussion2

Results & Discussion

The effect of spoofing on GPS accuracy

Reference GPS receiver

Reading 2

Reading 3

Reading 1

Reading 5

Reading 6

Reading 4


Gps spoofing

GPS Spoofing

The effect of spoofing on GPS accuracy

Evaluated GPS receiver

Reference GPS receiver


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Varying minimum spoofing signal power levels, times between position fix lost and spoofing, and probable error patterns are observed for different dates and times.

    • This is due to the GPS satellite constellation being dynamic, causing varying GPS satellite geometry over time, resulting in GPS performance being time dependent.

    • Variation in other GNSS error parameters, including ionospheric and tropospheric delays, satellite clock, ephemeris and multipath errors, and unintentional signal interferences and obstructions, could have also resulted in the variation of GPS performance.

  • As the spoofing signal power level is increased, probable error values increase due to decreasing C/N0levels for GPS satellites tracked by the receiver.

    • For all the readings, the highest probable errors occur at the minimum spoofing power levels. After spoofing takes place, the probable errors reduce to levels that are lower as compared to prior to transmission of the spoofing signal.

    • This occurs as at this point, the spoofing signal power level is relatively large, resulting in high C/N0 level and hence, improved accuracy.


Scope for future work

Scope for Future Work

  • On the whole, this study has demonstrated the disadvantages of field GNSS evaluations.

  • Without the ability to control the various GNSS error parameters, it is difficult to effectively study the effect of any particular error parameter, in the case of this study, spoofing, on GNSS accuracy.

  • This highlights the importance of conducting such tests in a controlled environment, using a GNSS simulator as the source of genuine GNSS signals as opposed to live GNSS signals.

  • This would allow the tests to be conducted under repeatable user-controlled conditions.


Gnss receiver evaluation

GNSS Receiver Evaluation

GNSS Simulation

Field Evaluation

  • Employs live GNSS signals.

  • Should be conducted in open area with clear view of the sky.

  • Tests scenarios are uncontrollable by users and not repeatable.

  • Employs simulated GNSS signals.

  • Should be conducted in a RF enclosure (e.g. anechoic chamber).

  • Test scenarios are user controllable and repeatable.


Gps jamming

GPS Jamming

Field Evaluation

GPS Simulation


Gps functional tests

GPS Functional Tests

Pendulum Instruments GPS-12R

Trimble Geoexplorer 6000 GeoXH, Nomad 900G and Juno SB

Magellan Z-Max

Topcon Hiper GA

Trimble R8

ProMark 200


Research collaborations

Research Collaborations

  • Effect of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on Global Positioning System (GPS) Static Observations

    • Collaboration with Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying (FSPU), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)

    • Project Co-Leaders:

      • Assoc. Prof. Sr. Dr. Azman Mohd Suldi

      • Mr. Ahmad Norhisyam Idris


Introduction 4864767

THANK YOU


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