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HOW CAN THE BUSINESS RESPONSE SHAPE THE FUTURE FOR SOUTH AFRICA Prof Wiseman Nkuhlu. 1. INTRODUCTION. HIV/AIDS remains the biggest socio-economic challenge world-wide; Sub-Sahara Africa is the worst affected region – accounting for 68% of infected adults in the world;

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  • HIV/AIDS remains the biggest socio-economic challenge world-wide;

  • Sub-Sahara Africa is the worst affected region – accounting for 68% of infected adults in the world;

  • Realising the threat posed by the epidemic, the African leadership identified the fight against HIV/AIDS as one of the top priorities of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) IN 2001;


  • The rest of the world is taming the AIDS monster;

  • HIV incidence rates are slowing down globally;

  • Yes, in Sub-Saharan African countries as well, but not in South Africa;

  • Mandatory testing at health care points has been introduced in Botswana and Uganda and the result is improved levels of treatment access due to people knowing their status

  • Access to treatment is growing; however, the concern is that new HIV infections significantly outpace the numbers of those starting on ART by a ratio of 5 to 2;

  • South Africa has 5,6 million people living with HIV/AIDS, 510 000 new infections per annum and 1 000 000 who are AIDS sick and of whom only 500 000 are on ART.

3. THE CLARION CALL TO BUSINESS new HIV infections significantly outpace the numbers of those starting on ART by a ratio of 5 to 2;

  • The magnitude of the challenge and its economic impact is such that it can not be left only to Government to resolve;

  • Once again, business is called upon to respond to a major threat to the economy and the future of South Africa;

  • The threat requires visionary and courageous leadership. The kind of leadership that business produced in the late 1970s following the Soweto uprising;

  • And throughout the 1980s leading to its role in CODESA and the establishment of the Business Trust;

  • The threat is HIV/AIDS which kills 370 000 young South Africans per year;

  • HIV/AIDS remains the greatest threat to South Africa and as long as it is not effectively addressed, the economic gains of the last few years will not be sustainable;

  • The country will plunge into what the Live the Future Model calls, the Winter of Discontent;

  • To move to the Summer for All People of the Live the Future Model scenario, we need a strong commitment by business leadership to champion and support the fight against HIV/AIDS – focus on large scale public-private partnerships, treatment and care and wide-spread behavior change;

  • To recommit to the Global Agenda of achieving universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support by the year 2010;

  • This would require leadership by captains of industry and implementation of company specific plans and dynamic engagement at the national level.

4. Model scenario, we need a strong commitment by business leadership to champion and support the fight against HIV/AIDS – focus on large scale public-private partnerships, treatment and care and wide-spread behavior change;CONCLUSION

As the interests of business are intricately intertwined with those of South Africa as a whole, as business we have no choice but to champion and support implementation of a programme to realise the Summer of All People scenario.

HIV&AIDS and STI Strategic Plan for South Africa, 2007 – 2011

and the Private Sector Strategy:

The Four Zero's

Brad Mears

Vision 2011

To empower South African Business to take effective action on HIV/Aids, in the workplace and beyond

Four Strategic Areas of Delivery 2011

  • To speak on behalf of Business and to co-ordinate the private sectors response to HIV

  • To empower Business to respond more effectively to HIV

  • To manage knowledge and conduct research

  • Develop internal capacity

Four Zero’s Vision 2011

  • Zero Tolerance for New Infections

  • Zero Tolerance for Babies Born with HIV

  • Zero Tolerance for Deaths Due to HIV

  • Zero Tolerance for Discrimination

Underpinning Principles 2011

  • Human Rights Framework

    • Non discrimination

    • Reduce social and economic inequalities

    • Achieve gender equity

    • Respect for the rights of the child

Underpinning Principles 2011

  • Outcomes based scientific knowledge and research

  • Culture of health seeking behavior

  • Universal applicability of the policy

  • Achievement of partnerships between sectors

Critical Success Factors 2011

  • Gain universal commitment to the Vision

  • Every person to know and manage their status

  • Create a culture of individual accountability

  • Track achievements through effective monitoring and evaluation

Zero Tolerance for New Infections 2011

  • Identify and utilize all effective HIV prevention measures, and to effectively monitor and evaluate these measures

  • Prevention and early treatment of STI’s

  • Identify, understand and challenge any aspect of social or cultural practices that increases the risk of infection

  • Communication must be targeted, measured, effectively timed, and proven to lead to behavior change

Zero Tolerance for Infections From Mother to Child 2011

  • Ensure that the risk of transmission is clearly understood by all.

  • Ensure that HIV positive women receive the necessary care and counseling in the first trimester

Zero Tolerance for Aids Deaths 2011

  • Have early diagnosis of the condition

  • Have all HIV positive people on a wellness program that supports positive living. In order to achieve this the following is essential

    • Break stigma associated with HIV

    • People to know how they access treatment

    • On-going monitoring to be conducted

  • Ongoing psycho-social support and support iro partner to partner disclosure

  • Good nutrition and lifestyle management

  • Receive sufficient exercise, sleep and rest

  • Reduce smoking, drug and alcohol abuse and stress

  • Create a culture of compliance

  • Effective management of co-infections such as TB

Zero Tolerance for Discrimination partner disclosure

  • Create a human rights culture through education and awareness, especially in the workplace

  • Promote the rights of women, children and those living with HIV

  • Address circumstances which lead to socio-economic injustice

Current Developments partner disclosure

  • Development of the Four Zero’s

  • Collaboration with Labour, Government and Civil Society in NEDLAC

  • Completion of a Situational Analysis

  • Alignment of Business responses with NSP in Northern Cape, Western Cape and Gauteng

  • Developing an M&E system for the private sector

Way Forward partner disclosure

  • Completion of Private Sector Strategy Document

  • Assess and amend the Code of Good Practice

  • Continue aligning Businesses response to the NSP in all nine provinces

  • Develop and implement an effective monitoring and evaluation system for the private sector

Conclusion partner disclosure

Keynote address jay naidoo

Keynote Address partner disclosureJay Naidoo

Chairman, DBSA

November 2008

From sabcoha s intent
From Sabcoha’s Intent partner disclosure


SABCOHA seeks to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on sustained profitability and economic growth by:

  • Establishing and building sustainable partnerships with key stakeholders

    - Mobilising all business sectors in implementing effective HIV &AIDS initiatives- Being a trusted conduit for business of relevant information on HIV & AIDS- Piloting projects on behalf of business that can be used to drive effective action and assist in the achievement of the other objectives

Have I got a job for you!

More than one in ten south africans already infected

% partner disclosure

More than one in ten South Africans already infected

HIV Negative

South African population:

Current model assumptions

  • SSA: 2% of world population

  • SSA: 33% of global HIV prevalence

  • SA: 1 in 9 South Africans have HIV

  • SA: 1 in 6 adults (15-49) have HIV




HIV Positive









Source: current ‘best knowledge’ as captured in ASSA models

The healthcare tsunami

2015 partner disclosure

The ‘healthcare Tsunami’


People infected



They can die


Coming to a town near you in the next 5-8 years: 5,5m people



They can swamp the healthcare system





They can get ARV’s

Current people

On ARV’s: 450,000 adults, 50,000 children




Source: Current projections from the ASSA models

Our outcomes are poor and are declining
Our outcomes are poor, and are declining... partner disclosure

Life expectancy at birth

Maternal Mortality

Infant Mortality (per 1,000)

























Sierra Leone






Source: Unicef; WHO Maternal Mortality Report, 2007, StatsSA; Monitor Analysis

Maybe it s easier to think about this in less abstract terms
Maybe it’s easier to think about this in less abstract terms

  • If you’re selling to consumers, chances are, 15-20% of your current customers are going to be dead within the next 5-8 years if we do nothing

  • If you have people working for you, capture their experience. You never know

  • Of course, their children might also be affected...

  • And what made you believe you are safe?

The Ubuntu Clinic is an Example of a Successful Partnership Programme that Operates to Achieve Superior Health Outcomes Within the Current System

Ubuntu Clinic (Site B)


Objectives of the Programme


  • The City of Cape Town Health Services,

  • The Department of Health of the Provincial Government of the Western Cape (PGWC)

  • The Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Unit of the School of Public Health, University of Cape Town (UCT)

  • The Epidemiology Unit of the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp (Belgium)

  • Treatment Action Campaign (TAC);

  • TB Care

  • Lifeline

  • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)

  • Increase VCT amongst TB clients as an entry point to HIV care

  • Diagnosing TB disease earlier in HIV-infected persons

  • Facilitating an integrated approach to the management of co-infected persons, creating a “one stop” service

  • Increasing service efficiency through more rational staff deployment and increased competence in the management of co-infected patients

  • Improving cure rates for both co-infected and TB patients through a more patient-centered approach to adherence

  • Benefiting from the experience of the TB programme to standardize the approach and the monitoring of ARV patients



  • Integration of HIV & TB Services

    • 50% co-infection rate



  • Achieved a Mother-to-child transmission rate of 4.7%, the lowest in the Western Cape

  • 97% HIV counselling rate for TB patients up from 50% in 2002

Source: Report on the Integration of TB and HIV Services in Ubuntu clinic (Site B), Khayelitsha, City of Cape Town Health Services, Medicins Sans Frontieres, Infectious Disease and Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town

Lusikisiki has an Example of a Community Supported Programme that Improves Outcomes Despite a Profound Lack of Resources


The Lusikisiki Challenge:

Decentralized HIV/AIDS Care

The Lusikisiki Model

HIV Prevalence at Antenatal Care (2006)


Descriptionof theProgramme


  • Introduce ARVs into a remote Primary Healthcare Clinic

  • Lusikisiki has a population of 150 000 serviced by 1 hospital & 12 clinics

  • Health worker shortages are a major bottleneck to ARV rollout esp. in rural areas

  • Primary Health Care versus hospital approach

    • Task transfer

      • Including nurse instead of doctor initiation of ARV

    • Community support

      • Training of peer educators

      • Establishing community groups etc.

      • 2 200 patients were enrolled in 2006

    • 95% coverage




Doctors* per 100,000 population (2006)






  • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)

  • The Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Unit of the School of Public Health, University of Cape Town (UCT)


National Average



Note: *Article describes doctors as physicians, **Euro27 is an average of the 27 European Countries, Source: Implementing Antiretroviral Therapy in Rural Communities: The Lusikisiki Model of Decentralized HIV/AIDS Care, the Journal of Infectious Diseases, Eurostats; World Health Report 2006

Private Sector / NGO Partnerships Appear to be Able to Increase Access to Healthcare Beyond the Immediate Employees and Their Families


The Bushbuckridge Project:


Anglo Coal and Virgin Unite

A corporate partnership to serve Bushbuckridge

  • Anglo Coal

  • Virgin Unite

  • President Bush’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, (PEPFAR)

  • National Union of Mineworkers

  • Bushbuckridge has a population of 70,000

  • Lack of access to healthcare is a major problem

    • Only one government mobile clinic service the area

  • The program intends to:

    • Stimulate the local economy

    • Build capacity for entrepreneurship

    • Tackle the HIV / AIDS related stigma

    • Create a working model for rural AIDS treatment in South Africa



  • To develop a local community health centre to provide free HIV treatment, TB and general medical services of high standard to service not only employees but also their families as well as the community

  • R50 Million has been pooled for the health centre project:

    • Anglo Coal has donated R5 million every year for five years

    • President Bush’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief supports operational costs

The Bushbuckridge HIV / AIDS Challenge:

HIV Prevalence 2007

  • Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)

  • The Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Unit of the School of Public Health, University of Cape Town (UCT);




Source: AIDS and the Private Sector : The case of South Africa, Overseas Development Institute

Lessons learnt by employer lead initiatives are being translated into community wide programmes
Lessons Learnt by Employer Lead Initiatives are being Translated into Community-Wide Programmes


The MBSA Siyakhana Project:


Mercedes-Benz South Africa

HIV & AIDS Workplace Programme

  • The Siyakhana project offers HIV / AIDS workplace support and programmes for small businesses in Buffalo City Municipality in the Eastern Cape

  • The programme deliberately extends beyond MBSA’s own supplier and dealer network, to:

    • Address the development challenges posed by AIDS

    • Demonstrate ongoing commitment to corporate responsibility

  • The programme is developed based on MBSA’s experience with HIV & AIDS workplace intervention programmes

  • The aim is to have 67 companies signed-up by 2009

    • 17 companies are already involved (2007)

  • Mercedes-Benz South Africa

  • Local Chamber of Commerce

  • Buffalo City Municipality

  • National Union of Metalworkers



  • Extend quality prevention, treatment, care and support to employees, their dependants and the community for HIV / AIDS conditions

  • Reflect the corporation's commitment to Corporate Social Responsibility

  • Progressively manage the increasing financial and human resource impacts associated with HIV & AIDS

  • MBSA provides 55% of the funding for the project

  • Companies are expected to pay a nominal annual fee:

    • Companies less than 50 employees pay R6,000 annually

    • Larger companies pay R8,000 a year

Source: AIDS and the Private Sector : The case of South Africa, Overseas Development Institute, Mercedes-Benz South Africa

So what s needed
So, what’s needed? Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

So what s needed1
So, what’s needed? Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

Infrastructure needed
Infrastructure needed Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

  • Logistics, facilities upgrades, .....

  • Training Infrastructure

  • Networks: telecoms, transport

  • Management practice

  • Measurement as a basis for action

  • Help ensure performance

  • Easiest one in the book

  • “Conditional Grant”: pay and teach

  • Target spending

So what s needed2
So, what’s needed? Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

Marketing? Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

  • Marketing is the art and science of changing behaviour

  • When done well

    • ... It is based on identified segments...

    • ... With clearly identified behavioral change objectives ....

    • ... With a strategy as to how that comes about

  • It results in brands, in “truths”, in dissemination of knowledge

  • If there’s anything we need right now, it’s a change in some behaviours

    • Around unsafe sex

    • Around getting tested

    • Around getting into ARV programs

    • Around staying the course on ARV programs

    • Around getting into AnteNatal programs early, etc

  • So, how can we deploy the technology of marketing curb HIV & Aids?

So what s needed3
So, what’s needed? Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

Innovation nothing new
Innovation – nothing new! Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

So what s needed4
So, what’s needed? Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

Thought leadership enlightened self interest meets humanity
Thought Leadership: enlightened self-interest meets humanity Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

  • The challenges faced by the health services represent a profoundly strategic challenge ...

  • .... Which ultimately challenges all of us, since it talks about our families, our colleagues, our customers, and our friends ...

  • ... Which is of a size and a significance to put to the test, the best we can throw at it ....

  • ... Which will force us to collaborate across firms, private/public sector, with Unions and a mobilised civil society – and anyone else who cares enough to help ....

  • Seems we’re at our own point of choice: we can hang together, or hang separately

And here s the profound part building the rainbow nation
And here’s the profound part- building the rainbow nation Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

  • this is not just about HIV

  • or TB

  • or Malaria

  • or malnutrition

  • or crime

  • or or or or or or

It takes a village
It takes a village.... ? Translated into Community-Wide Programmes

  • 1 in 5 of our children suffers from long-term malnutrition: they are stunted

  • 1 in 3 of our children has chronic vitamin A deficiency that will shorten their life

  • 1 in 8 of our children are underweight for their age

  • 2% of our children suffer from kwashiorkor or marasmus: severe malnutrition of protein or energy: they will die. 2% means 200,000 children under the age of 10

In our village?