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Topic 12 . Earths Dynamic Crust and Interior. Lithosphere:. Layer of rock that forms the outer shell of the earth . Crust:. The upper part of the lithosphere. Small Scale Crustal Changes. Law of original Horizontality:. Sedimentary rocks form flat horizontal layers .

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Topic 12

Topic 12

Earths Dynamic Crust and Interior


Lithosphere:

Layer of rock that forms the outer shell of the earth

Crust:

The upper part of the lithosphere


Small Scale Crustal Changes

Law of original Horizontality:

Sedimentary rocks form flat horizontal layers


The Four ways that Rock Layers are Changed

1) Folding:

Compression causes layers to bend

2) Tilting:

Layer of strata get tipped


The four ways that rock layers are changed
The Four ways that Rock Layers are Changed

3) Faulting:

Rocks are displaced along a crack called a fault

4) Uplift:

Rock layers get pushed up many meters


Earthquakes and igneous activity including volcanoes
Earthquakes and Igneous Activity Including Volcanoes

quake

Earthquake:

Natural rapid shaking of the earth

The stored energy in the ground is released as seismic waves

Focus:

Place where the earthquake originates

Epicenter:

Place on earth’s surface directly above focus

Fault:

Plane where the rock breaks

Example


Earthquakes and igneous activity including volcanoes1
Earthquakes and Igneous Activity Including Volcanoes

Seismograph:

Instrument used to detect and measure quakes

How it Works

Again

Seismogram:

Actual recording of the quake


3 types of earthquake waves
3 Types of Earthquake Waves

1) P-waves (primary): Compression wave that vibrates in the same direction as particles

2) S-waves (secondary): Shear wave that moves perpendicular to the particles

3) L-waves (surface): Travel on surface and cause the damage


Properties of seismic waves
Properties of Seismic Waves

-P-waves are fastest and arrive at the seismograph 1st

-Waves travel faster in more dense material

-Waves travel faster as pressure is increased

-P-waves travel through solids, liquids and gasses

-S-waves only travel through solids


Location of an epicenter
Location of an Epicenter

The location of any earthquake can be found by knowing the distance from the epicenter to three seismic stations.

Process

1) Find the time difference between P and S waves

2) Mark the time difference on scrap paper

3) Use ESRT to find distance

4) Repeat for 2 more seismograms


Location of an epicenter1
Location of an Epicenter

What does the distance from one seismograph tell us?

The quake was somewhere on the circle

What does the distance from two seismographs tell us?

Narrows it down to 2 possibilities

What does the distance from one seismograph tell us?

Exact location


Finding the origin time of earthquakes
Finding the Origin Time of Earthquakes

1) Use the distance to determine travel time

2) Subtract travel time from arrival time

AT 10:27:35

TT - 7:42

AT 15:26:12

TT - 3:20

10:19:53

15:22:52


Magnitude of earthquakes
Magnitude of Earthquakes

Measure of the intensity of an earthquake

Mercalli Scale:

Rates the effects of the earthquake

Richter Scale:

Measuresmagnitude of actual energy released

Tsunami:

Seismic sea wave triggered by a quake

How they work


Igneous activity and volcanoes
Igneous Activity and Volcanoes

Volcano:

Mountain made of extrusive igneous rocks

Volcanic Eruption:

Giving off of gasses lava and rock

Zones of Crustal Activity

Ring of Fire:

Area of volcanic activity surrounding the Pacific

Where are other areas of activity located?

Plate Boundaries

Mount Saint Helens

Pyroclastic Flow


A model of earth s interior
A Model of Earth’s Interior

Scientists use seismic waves to create a model

What happens to pressure as you go from crust to core?

What happens to temperature as you go from crust to core?


Zones of the earth
Zones of the Earth

Lithosphere

Thinnest layer (shell on a hard boiled egg)

2 Types of Crust

1) Continental Crust:

Rock that makes up the continents

Composition:

Granite

Density:

2.7 g/cm3

2) Oceanic Crust:

Rock that makes up the ocean floor

Composition:

Basalt

Density:

3.0 g/cm3


Zones of the earth1
Zones of the Earth

Moho:

The interface between lithosphere and the mantle

Asthenosphere:

Upper mantle (like silly putty) able to flow

Mantle:

Layer of rock between the Asthenosphere and outer core

Makes Up 80% of Earth’s Volume

Core:

Central part of the earth

2 Cores

1) Outer Core

2) Inner Core

Composition:

Composition:

Iron and Nickel

Iron and Nickel

State of Matter:

State of Matter:

Solid

Liquid



Also Dumb!! IS DUMB


Plate tectonic theory
Plate Tectonic Theory IS DUMB

What is a plate?

Large section of the lithosphere

The lithosphere of the earth is made up of 12 major Plates

How fast do these plates move?

3 to 10 cm/yr.


Evidence of plate tectonics
Evidence of Plate Tectonics IS DUMB

Fossils:

Land fossils match on different continents

Geology:

Rock types and ages match on different continents

Puzzle:

Continents fit together like a puzzle



The three types of plate boundaries
The Three Types of Plate Boundaries IS DUMB

1) Divergent:

Plates move away from each other

a.) Midocean ridges:

Mountain ranges in the middle of oceans

b.) Rift valleys:

Deep valleys formed from separating plates

How it happens


The three types of plate boundaries1
The Three Types of Plate Boundaries IS DUMB

2) Convergent:

Plates are coming together

3 Varieties of Convergence

Oceanic-Oceanic:

2 oceanic plates collide

-Volcanic island arcs

-Destruction due to subduction


The three types of plate boundaries2
The Three Types of Plate Boundaries IS DUMB

b) Oceanic-Continental:

Collision of oceanic and continental plates

-Mountain ranges and volcanoes

-Deep sea trenches


The three types of plate boundaries3
The Three Types of Plate Boundaries IS DUMB

c.) Continent-Continent:

2 continental plates collide

-Mountain ranges

-Earthquakes

Creation and Destruction


The three types of plate boundaries4
The Three Types of Plate Boundaries IS DUMB

3.) Transform Plate Boundaries:

Plates grind horizontally

-Deformation of rock and many quakes

San Andreas Fault


Hot Spots IS DUMB

Hot Spots:

Major volcanic activity in the middle of plate

-Caused by concentrations of radioactive elements

-Ex: Hawaii and the Galapagos

How do they form


Effects of Plate Tectonics IS DUMB

Appearance of Continents:

Fit together

Features of Landmasses:

Fossils on different continents, coal bed correlation, tropical fossils in NYS, marine fossils on mountains

Heat and Age Patterns

Age:

Edges of the ocean is the oldest, new material at MOR

Heat Patterns:

Rock gets cooler and denser towards the continents

Sea Floor Spreading

Magnetic Patterns

Polarity

-Poles have reversed throughout history


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