RELATIVE CLAUSES (Adjective Clauses). Relative clauses are introduced by relative pronouns – that, which, who, whom, and whose. They have the same function as adjectives, and for this reason are sometimes called adjective clauses . . Form and Functions. Art Adj Adj Head Noun
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Art AdjAdj Head Noun
Art Head Noun Relative Clause
Note: The noun phrase modified can be a subject, object, indirect object, or object of a preposition.
My sister who lives in Canada is a biologist.
(Which of your sisters is a biologist?)
- identifies the noun it modifies
My sister, who lives in Canada, is a biologist.
(new information about the noun modified)
for humans and inanimate things
for inanimate things
Possessive form for humans and inanimate things
1. Subject (S) Relative Clauses
The clause that is introduced by who, that, or which replaces the subject of the clause
2. Object (O) Relative Clauses
The clause that is introduced by who, that, or which replaces the object of the clause
3. Indirect Object (IO) Relative Clauses
Limited to to and for
Two patterns are possible:
(whom is seldom used)
(no who and that)
4. Object of the Preposition (OP) Relative Clauses
When way or manner is the object of the preposition in, the preposition must be moved.
Most phrasal prepositional verbs don’t permit the elements following the verb to be moved:
5. Possessive (POS) Relative Clauses
a) POS Relative Clauses Introduced by whose:
b) POS Relative Clauses Introduced by of which:
6. Object of Comparison (OC) Relative Clauses
Who, whom, that, or which replaces an NP following the comparative conjunction than
Do you see that truck what just went by?
-More common in British English
* Usually they give you a thing…, you know , a thing that you don’t want it.
Something that I can’t really talk about happened.
When two clauses are strung together it is called stacking.
The people [who take the course] [ who Dana likes] usually come from local high schools. (writing)
The book [that I like] [which everyone else in class hates] was written by Joan Didion.(conversation)
The omission of the Relative pronoun is possible in any Object relative except S RC.
Whose POS relatives with stranded prepositions cannot be reduced.
Every doodle must depict something that can be expressed in a reduced relative clause structure.
Infinitival (INFIN) Relative Clauses
Have undergone relative pronoun deletion
*Here is a chair which to sit on.
(John is not the right person in whom to confide.)
Nouns that denote a place, a time, or a purpose may be followed by OP Relative Clauses
Stand alone rather than following and modifying a head noun.
a)Definite Free Relatives are introduced by what, where, and when.
b) Indefinite Free Relatives introduced by who(m)ever, whichever, whatever, wherever, and whenever.
Modification of proper nouns