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Style Approach to Leadership. Comparison of Two Presidential Approaches Caroline O’Leary, Michael Leidig , Cate Kelly, Woosung Hwang and Kathleen DelPrete. Overview. Style approach description The results of research studies How the approach works Analysis of President’s Kennedy & Reagan

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style approach to leadership

Style Approach to Leadership

Comparison of Two Presidential Approaches

Caroline O’Leary, Michael Leidig, Cate Kelly, Woosung Hwang and Kathleen DelPrete

  • Style approach description
  • The results of research studies
  • How the approach works
  • Analysis of President’s Kennedy & Reagan
  • Cultural perspective
style approach description
Style Approach: Description
  • The Style approach emphasizes the behavior of the leader
  • The approach focuses on what the leaders do and how they act in situations
studies research about the approach
Studies / Research about the approach
  • Ohio State University (Stogdill, 1948, 1963)
  • University of Michigan (Cartwright & Zander, 1960; Katz & Kahn, 1951; Likert, 1961, 1967)
  • Blake and Mouton (Blake & McCanse, 1991; Blake & Mouton, 1964, 1978, 1985)
breakdown of the style approach
Breakdown of the Style Approach
  • Task behavior - The leader is concerned about production, goal attainment
  • Relationship behavior - The leader is concerned that the group members are being comfortable with themselves and working with others
  • “Purpose of the approach is to explain how the leaders combine these two kinds of behaviors to influence subordinates in their efforts reach a goal.”
style approach studies
Style Approach: Studies

Ohio State University Results

University of Michigan Results

  • Initiating Structure: (task behaviors) organizing work, giving structure to the work context, defining role responsibilities, scheduling work activities.
  • Consideration:(relationship behaviors) building camaraderie, respect, trust, and liking between leaders and followers.
  • Product Orientation: (task behaviors) focus on technical and production aspects, workers viewed as the means to getting work accomplished.
  • Employee Orientation: (relationship behaviors) strong human relations emphasis, value individuality, interested in subordinates as human beings, pay attention to personal needs.
major styles of leadership grid
Major Styles of Leadership Grid
  • Authority-Compliance (9,1)
  • Country Club Management (1,9)
  • Impoverished Management (1,1)
  • Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5)
  • Team Management (9,9)
  • Paternalism/Maternalism (1, 9; 9,1)
  • Opportunism
style approach kennedy
Style Approach: Kennedy
  • Opportunistic:
    • Team Management Style
  • Foreign Policy:
    • Bay of Pigs
    • Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Alliance for Progress
    • Vietnam
    • Communism
kennedy cuban missile crisis
Kennedy: Cuban Missile Crisis
style approach kennedy1
Style Approach: Kennedy
  • Domestic Policy:
    • “New Frontier”
    • Civil Rights
    • Space Program
reagan shared vision
Reagan: Shared Vision
style approach regan
Style Approach: Regan
  • Opportunistic:
    • The Great Communicator
      • Team Management Style
    • Communism vs. The American Dream
      • Authority-Compliance Management
    • The “Teflon President”
      • Impoverished Management
      • Iran-Contra
cultural perspectives
Cultural Perspectives
  • How societal/cultural settings influence:
    • Leadership perception
    • Processes of followers
    • Ways perceived leadership effectiveness can be achieved
  • Two cultural dimensions:
    • Collectivism/individualism
    • Masculinity/femininity
  • Two types of leadership perception modes:
    • Recognition-based
    • Inference-based processes
  • Cultural settings insights
crisis management style
Crisis Management & Style
  • The Cuban missile crisis : Anatomy of a Controversy
  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan : Superpower crisis &the second cold war
kennedy cuban missile crisis1
Kennedy & Cuban Missile Crisis
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Reaction of Kennedy\'s leadership to crisis
  • Russian: Before & After Stalin Era
  • Relationship between The United States and Latin America
  • South Korean: Cuban Missile Crisis & North Korean Missile Crisis
    • Communism vs. Capitalism
reagan the soviet invasion of afghanistan
Reagan & the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
  • The Soviet War in Afghanistan
  • Reaction of Reagan\'s leadership of The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan:
    • Russian: USSR should admit we are loser of Cold war?
    • South Korean: South Korea and the US are strong allies?
style conclusion
Style Conclusion
  • Similarities between two administrations