If you’ve been feeling depressed recently, this could be due to (1) the weather. Every winter, a number of people (between 1 to 9 percent of the US population) suffer from a condition called Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), also known as winter depression or the winter blues.
As days become shorter, many people experience mild “winter blues”, with symptoms such as fatigue, a desire to eat more, and an increased vulnerability to infection. With the coming (2) of spring, these symptoms disappear. But some people, 70 to 80% of them women, are so affected by the lack of sunlight that they become unable to function. They experience severe *disruptions in eating and sleeping patterns, mood changes, extreme loss (3) of energy and depression.
SAD is not a new phenomenon. In the 6th century AD, symptoms of winter depression among Scandinavians were noted (4) by a scholar called Jordanes. Even today, SAD is most commonly found in locations further away from the equator and nearer to the poles – up to 20% of Swedes may be affected. However, SAD was not diagnosed as a medical condition until the mid-1980s.
No one is certain what causes the condition, but some researchers believe that SAD is related to a disruption of our internal body clock. This “clock” controls the secretion of hormones that affect our daily functioning. Without sufficient sunlight, the clock does not reset itself. As a result, we may feel sleepy or hungry at inappropriate times, or suffer from mood changes. Luckily, most sufferers respond to light therapy, which involves exposure to super-bright light bulbs as a supplement (5) to weak winter sun. These may be fitted inside a light-box, which is placed in front of the user, or in the visor of a cap, which is worn by sufferers for half an hour a day.
*disruption: the interruption of normal activity
due to (1)and because of
coming (2)and arrival
loss (3) and reduction
noted (4)and identified
supplement (5)and addition
2.1.5 puntos / 0.75 each
2.1 Symptoms of SAD can range from very mild to completely incapacitating.
2.2 Our internal body clock needs a certain amount of sunlight to reset itself
3.2 puntos / 0.50 each Se descuenta 0.25x errores graves o reproducción total
a) Mild “winter blues”are experienced by many people when winter begins.
b) For some people, the lack of sunlight affects them so much that they are unable to function.
c) Our daily functioning is affected by hormones controlled by our internal body clock.
d) It is fortunate that light therapy can help most SAD sufferers
For many years, my mother .................(a) suffer ………… (b) winter blues. Every year, she became very …………. (c) and ……………(d) not eat or sleep well. But luckily, her doctor recognised that these were symptoms of SAD and arranged for appropriate treatment. Now, when winter begins, she receives light therapy for half an hour each day and …………………………….(e), she can now function normally throughout the winter ………………… (f).
(a) used to
(d)did / could
(e)consequently/ as a result
People with SAD cannot eat or sleep as they normally do. They have mood swings and feel very tired and depressed. They can be cured with light therapy.
Do you believe in the theory that aliens built Stonehenge?
Many people believe that aliens have influenced our civilization in the
past, and they claim that they may have helped us build places like
Stonehenge. However, I feel that nobody has proved that, and that´s
why I don´t agree with this theory.
Introduzco mi opinión
con un conector, y
de manera clara
Con esta frase
Conector de contraste,
ya que mi opinión es
diferente a la que refleja
Nowadaysmostteachers use examstoevaluatestudents´ progress. In my
opinion, thisisthemosteffectivewaytoknowtheirpupils´ abilities.
Estoy de acuerdo con la frase de presentación y no uso conector de contraposición.
También puedo parafrasear la pregunta para establecer el tema:
Nowadaystoomuchimportanceisgiventotakingexams at school.
In my opinion…….
O quizás no esté de acuerdo:
Nowadaysmostteachers use examstoevaluatestudents´ progress.
However , I believethisisnotthemostsuitablewaytoknowtheir
EXPRESIONES PARA PRESENTAR TEMAS
there are goodargumentsfor and againstit (título del tema)
there are manyadvantages and disadvantagesaboutit (título del tema)
At presentmanycountries are banning smoking in public places. However
ther are bothadvantages and disadvantagesaboutit. - Argumentative
Itis a wellknownfactthat in somecountriespeople are notallowedto
smoke in public places. I thinkthatallgovermentsshouldadoptthislaw.
Itisoftensaid / claimed / assertedthatpeopleshouldnotsmoke
in publicplaces.However I believethateverybodyshouldbeallowedto
smokeeverywhere. - Opinión
For the great majority of people people should not smoke in public places.
I strongly agree with this because we must respect non-smokers.
A problemthatisoftendebatednowadaysisthat of people smoking in
public places. From my point of view, peopleshouldnotsmoke in those
places. - Opinion.
Todas las presentaciones de opinión pueden ser adaptadas para textos
argumentativos, cambiando la opinión personal por la coletilla:
However, there are both advantages and disadvantages about it (tema)
FOR AND AGAINST ESSAY
What are theadvantages and disadvantages of free publictransport?
Nowadays many people hold strong views about banning smoking in public places.
However, there are good arguments for and against.
Although many people think smoking in public places should not be allowed, there
Are both arguments for and against it.
In some countries, people are not allowed to smoke in public places. However,
Some people think that goverments should not ban it. There are arguments both
Against and in favour of banning smoking in public places.
Como podéis observar, en ninguna de ellas se da una opinión personal.
There are several arguments in favour of banning smoking in public places.
Firstly, some people claim that they feel more comfortable and healthier if there
are not people smoking around them because they do not inhale the smoke of
other people´s cigarettes. In addition, children can not see people smoke, which
is really positive to prevent children from smoking in the future. On the other
hand, some smokers argue that goverments should let people smoke in public
areas because they think they are not damaging anybody but themselves. What´s
more, they feel that it would be an act of limiting freedom.
No se dan opiniones personales, sino argumentos razonados de otras personas que se oyen en nuestra sociedad. Fijaos en los conectores que se usan para introducir argumentos de la misma naturaleza (Firstly, In addition, What´s more) y aquellos
Para introducir argumentos contrarios (On the other hand)
In conclusion, banning smoking cigarettes in public places has advantages and
disadvantages . However, I believe that goverments should prohibit smoking
in public areas although that means a restriction of our freedom
El autor da una opinión clara y coherente sobre el tema. Aquí es donde debes dar tu opinión sin olvidar el conector de conclusión y el de opinión.
Question nº 3
Question nº 5
5. According to the text, pets have been proved to be a source of health
for their owners. Can you summarize the main facts that support
“ Thereappearstobestrongevidencethathaving a pet can help
a person lead a longer, healthierlife. In a study of 92 people
withsevereheartproblems, within a year, 11 of the 29 without
petshaddied, butonly 3 of the 52 whohadpets. A recentstudy
concludedthatowninga petcanreducetheriskof a heartattack
by 2% and thatpets are betterthanmedication in reducingblood
Accordingtotheinformation in thetext, there are severalfactsthat
supportthe idea thatpetshavebeenprovedtobe a source of health
fortheirowners. Firstly, in a research of 92 subjectswithcriticalhealth
problems, in a year, 11 of the 29 whohadnota pethaddied. However,
only 3 of the 59 whoownedpetshaddied. (a lowpercentage of pet
ownnershaddied in a year ) Secondly, anotherreviewclaimedthatkeeping
a petcoulddecreasethedanger of a heartattackby 2%. Finally, thesame
studyalsoconcludedthatpets are more efficientthanmedicationin orderto reduce bloodpressure
Accordingtotheinformation in thetext, there are severalfactsthat
defendthenotionthatpetshavebeenprovedtobe a source of healthfor
theirowners. Twoimportantstudiesdemonstratethis. Firstly, 56 per cent
of petowners reduce hisdanger of dying of a heartattack. Secondly,
othersurveyalsoclaimedthatkeeping a petcoulddecreasethatriskby 2%.
Finally, thesameresearchalsoshowedthatpets are more efficientthan
medication in orderto reduce bloodpressure. Therefore, it has been
demonstratedthatifyoukeep a pet, you can improveyourhealth
See “For and against essay”
Nowadays many people strongly agree or disagree on this question.
However, there are good arguments for having a pet /
against having a pet
A problem that is often debated nowadays is that of having a pet