Psci 1101 11 october 2007
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PSCI 1101 11 October 2007. Congress A. The Constitutional Congress B. Basic definitions C. Steps in the legislative process. The U.S. Constitution and the Role of the Congress: Providing formal guidelines for the member. The U.S. Constitution and the Role of the Congress.

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PSCI 1101 11 October 2007

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Psci 1101 11 october 2007

PSCI 110111 October 2007

Congress

A. The Constitutional Congress

B. Basic definitions

C. Steps in the legislative process


The u s constitution and the role of the congress providing formal guidelines for the member

The U.S. Constitution and the Role of the Congress:Providing formal guidelines for the member


The u s constitution and the role of the congress

The U.S. Constitution and the Role of the Congress

Article I, Sec. 1: “All Legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress. . .”

Article I, Sec. 2: “The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People…”

Article I, Sec. 3, with Amendment XVII:

“The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof,…”


The u s constitution and the role of the congress1

The U.S. Constitution and the Role of the Congress

The dual roles of Congress:

Lawmaker (or legislator)

(Article I, Sec. 1)

Representative

(Article I, Sec. 2 & 3)


Congress basic definitions

Congress:Basic definitions

  • Legislator: the person (lawmaker, member of Congress)

  • Legislation: policy proposals (bills & resolutions)

  • Legislature: the body of legislators (the body of Congress generally, or the House of Representatives and/or the Senate)

    Legislators consider legislation in the legislature.


Congress basic definitions1

Congress:Basic definitions

  • To legislate = to make laws

    Members of Congress consider legislation with the goal of making laws.

    Bills that pass the Congress become public laws.


How a bill becomes a law

How a Bill Becomes a Law

For more information, see:

Project Vote Smart

http://www.vote-smart.org/resource_govt101_02.php


Process box 5 2 top

Process Box 5.2 top


Psci 1101 11 october 2007

Steps in the Legislative Process

1. Introduction and referral (either chamber)


Types of legislation proposals before congress

Types of Legislation(proposals before Congress)

Bills (H.R. or S.):most legislation, requiring approval of both the House and Senate and presidential signature to become law.

Joint Resolutions (H.J.Res. or S.J.Res.):Noeffective difference from bills, but typically narrower in focus.

Concurrent Resolutions (H.Con.Res. or

S.Con. Res.): Requires adoption by both chambers but not sent to the president, thus does not have the force of law.

Resolutions (H.Res. or S. Res.):Deals with matters completely within one chamber.


Bills introduced 110 th congress as of 8 october 2007

Bills introduced, 110th Congressas of 8 October 2007

House bills introduced to date: 3,772

Senate bills introduced to date: 2,157


Psci 1101 11 october 2007

Steps in the Legislative Process

1. Introduction and referral (either chamber)

2. Committee action


Congress in its committee rooms is congress at work woodrow wilson congressional government 1885

“Congress in its committee rooms is Congress at work.”-- Woodrow WilsonCongressional Government (1885)


Committee action

Committee Action

a. Hearings

* Legislative

* Oversight

b. Mark-up

c. Committee report


Psci 1101 11 october 2007

Steps in the Legislative Process

1. Introduction and referral (either chamber)

2. Committee action

3. Floor action


Floor action

Floor Action

a. Scheduling floor consideration

(House Rules Committee)

b. Debate

  • Decision

    * unanimous consent

    * roll call votes


How to track legislation

How to Track Legislation

THOMAS: http://thomas.loc.gov/

In the spirit of Thomas Jefferson, legislative information from the Library of Congress


Psci 1101 11 october 2007

  • Steps in the Legislative Process

  • Introduction and referral (either chamber)

  • Committee action

  • Floor action

  • Upon passage, referral to other chamber;

  • repeat above

    • legislation can be introduced in either the House or Senate

    • In order to become law, legislation must pass both the House and the Senate in identical form


Psci 1101 11 october 2007

  • Steps in the Legislative Process

  • Introduction and referral (either chamber)

  • Committee action

  • Floor action

  • Upon passage, referral to other chamber,

  • repeat above

  • Final passage

    • Agreement on identical language

    • Conference committee negotiations on identical language


Psci 1101 11 october 2007

  • Steps in the Legislative Process

  • Introduction and referral (either chamber)

  • Committee action

  • Floor action

  • Upon passage, referral to other chamber; repeat above

  • Final passage

  • Final votes: cleared for the White House

  • Presidential action

  • Options:

  • Signature → becomes law

  • Veto → the bill dies

  • Veto→Congress overrides

  • → becomes law


Public laws

Public Laws

Enacted to date in the 110th Congress:

93 public laws (as of 10/08/07)

Number of public laws enacted:

109th Congress: 482

108th Congress: 498

107th Congress: 377

106th Congress: 580

105th Congress: 394


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