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Where are the African American Male Learners?--Disproportionality And Effective Culturally Responsive Research, Policies and Practices to Reduce this Scourge

Presented by:

Dr. James M. Patton, Professor

The College of William and Mary

[email protected]

To

MAEC Conference

Washington, D. C.

March 24, 2006


Overview
Overview Learners?--Disproportionality And Effective Culturally Responsive Research, Policies and Practices to Reduce this Scourge

  • Introductions and Flow

  • Historical Contexts

  • What We Know about Disproportionality – Conceptual Issues, Evidence and Data

  • What is the Risk of Being Identified….


Overview cont
Overview (cont.) Learners?--Disproportionality And Effective Culturally Responsive Research, Policies and Practices to Reduce this Scourge

  • Some Additional Factors that Shape Disproportionality

  • The Nexus of Culture, Class and Disproportionality

  • Culturally Responsive Research, Policies and Practices Needed: A Call For New Research and Pedagogical Solutions

  • Other Culturally Responsive Solutions

  • The Trio of Ethical Challenges

  • Change, Plato and the Cave Allegory


Historical Contexts Learners?--Disproportionality And Effective Culturally Responsive Research, Policies and Practices to Reduce this Scourge


Council for exceptional children cec resolution on disproportionate representation april 1997
Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Resolution on Disproportionate Representation(April,1997)

“Whereas, the Disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education has been consistently confirmed through numerous scholarly studies since the 1970’s and recognized in U.S. Federal and Canadian provincial laws.”


Council for exceptional children resolution on disproportionate representation 1997
Council for Exceptional Children Resolution on Disproportionate Representation (1997)

Resolved that the:

  • United States Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights (OCR) continues to monitor disproportionate representation and conform their policies and procedures to recommendations of the task forces.


Donovan, M. S., & Cross, C. T. (Eds.). (2002). Disproportionate Representation (1997)Minority students in special and gifted education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council Of the National Academy of Science (NAS) Recommendations on Special Education.


Nas 2002
NAS 2002 Disproportionate Representation (1997)

  • …“Twenty years later, disproportionality in special education persists.”

    (Donovan & Cross, 2002)


National research council report 2002
National Research Council Report (2002) Disproportionate Representation (1997)

Recommendations for States:

  • “Course work and practicum experience to prepare teachers to deliver culturally responsive instruction. More specifically, teachers should be more familiar with the beliefs, values, cultural practices, discourse styles, and other features of student’s lives…(p.373).”


National research council report 2002 cont
National Research Council Report Disproportionate Representation (1997)(2002) Cont.

  • In response to Disproportionality, the NRC calls for extensive changes in training and roles of teachers, administrators, and related service personnel in order to makeeducation professionals responsive to a diverse population. In particular, this body suggests that “recognizing and working with implicit and explicit racial stereotypes should be incorporated in training programs” (p. 317).


What is the status of such training
What Is The Status of Such Training? Disproportionate Representation (1997)

  • Although 41 states require some form of diversity training for teacher licensure , specific requirements, definitions, and standards vary significantly and are routinely not enforced (Ewing,2003).


The national council for the accreditation of teacher education
The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education

  • The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) found that only 56% of the institutions surveyed addressed cultural diversity adequately in their pre-service professional education curricula (Goodwin, 1997).


Disproportionality
Disproportionality Education

Well then what does that elephant in the room look like?



What is disproportionality
What is Disproportionality? Education

  • “Disproportionality is the over or underrepresentation in special and gifted education of a given population group often defined by racial and ethnic backgrounds, but also defined by socioeconomic status, national origin, English proficiency, gender, and sexual orientation in a specific population category.”

    (EMSTAC: www.emstac.org,’04)


What is disproportionality1
What is Disproportionality? Education

  • Disproportionate representation is defined as “the extent to which membership in a given group affects the probability of being placed in a specific special education disability category.” (Oswald, et. Al. 1999)


So what why is disproportionality a problem
So What? Why is EducationDisproportionality a Problem?

  • If we find bias or inappropriate practice at any phase of the referral and placement process that leads to disproportionate representation, then we must treat disproportionality as a problem (Heller, Holtzman, & Messick, 1982).


So what cont
So What? Cont. Education

  • When a disability label stigmatizes a student as inferior, it results in lowered expectations, potentially separates the student from peers, and leads to poor educational and life outcomes; inappropriate placement is of great concern (Patton, 1998).


What else do we know research evidence and data show that
What Else do We Know? EducationResearch, Evidence, and Data Show That:

  • Disproportionality is Janus-like in nature, form, and structure (USDOE, 1998).

  • The problem is pervasive and has gotten better for some, but not for others – especially African American males (Artiles, A., and Trent, S., 1998).

  • African American males are overrepresented in all high incidence categories (MR+ED+LD) of special education and especially overrepresented in all suspension and expulsion categories. (NCCREST, 2004)


What else do we know research evidence and data show that1
What Else do We Know? EducationResearch, Evidence, and Data Show That:

  • In Elementary Schools, males, especially African American males, are twice as likely to be diagnosed with learning disabilities as females and twice as likely to be placed in special education classes.

  • 40% of males are being raised without their biological dad.

  • More than half of African American males who start high school do not finish.

    (Tyre, P., The Trouble with Boys, Newsweek, January, 30. 2006)


What else do we know research evidence and data show that2
What Else do We Know? EducationResearch, Evidence, and Data Show That:

  • The problem is with false positive youngsters in special education and false negative students in gifted education(Patton, J., 1998).

  • The problem is national and most apparent in the South; in cities with large concentrations of African American; and in some local school districts where Blacks are conspicuous (Patton, J., 1998).


What do we know about disproportionality
What Do We Know About Disproportionality? Education

  • Problems often lie primarily in special education categories that tend to rely on subjective judgments. (Patton, 1998)

  • As a result, African American students, especially males, and certain other minority students tend to be overrepresented in classrooms for students with mild mental disabilities and emotional and behavioral disabilities (Oswald, Coutinho, Best, & Singh, 1999).

  • Although African Americans represent 16% of elementary and secondary enrollments, they constitute 21% of total enrollments in special education (USDOE, 1998).


R esearch evidence and data show that
R Educationesearch, Evidenceand Data show that:

  • African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are generally “deeper” into special education than comparable non-minorities. (Artiles, A. and Trent, S., 1998)

  • Disproportionality is a problem because it creates stigmata; provides limiting inappropriate services, reinforces school segregation; and correlates with negative outcomes such as premature school leaving at all levels, school expulsions at all levels, school suspensions at all levels, and the like. (Artiles, A., and Trent, S., 1998)

  • Almost 75% of diagnoses of mild mental retardation are linked to various socioeconomic-related environmental contingencies. Poor children are more likely than wealthier children to receive special Education. (U.S. Department of Education, 1998)


R esearch evidence and data show that1
R Educationesearch, Evidenceand Data show that:

  • Poor African American children are 2.3 times more likely to be identified by their teacher as having mental retardation. (Oswald, Coutinho, Best, & Singh, 1999)

  • Poverty and other socioeconomic factors affect the incidence of disability among ethnic groups and across all disabilities. Even with socioeconomic factors considered, race and ethnicity remain significant factors in placing children in special education. (Paper presented at Harvard University Civil Rights Project Conference on Minority Issues in Special Education, 2000) www.law.harvard.edu/civilrights


What do we know
What Do We Know Education

  • African Americans, especially males, who engage in certain Behaviors that Represent Artifacts of their Culture—such as Language (Ebonics), Movement Patterns (verve), and certain “Ethnic” appearance– have been found to be Over-represented in False Positive Referrals for Special Education Placement (Neal, L., McCray, A. & Webb-Johnson, G. 2001).


R esearch evidence and data show that2
R Educationesearch, Evidenceand Data show that:

OVERREPRESENTATION RESULTS IN LEARNERS BECOMING DISTANCED INNAPPROPRIATELY FROM THE GENERAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM, WHICH, IN TURN, LIMITS THEIR OPPORTUNITIES TO BE EXPOSED TO THIS CURRICULUM AND ACCOMPANYING SYSTEMS, STRUCTURES, PERSONNEL, AND OTHER RESOURCES. ACCORDINGLY, RESULTS ON HIGH STAKES TESTS AND OTHER ‘MEASURES’ OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT MUST BE SITUATED IN THIS REALITY. ( Patton. J. 1998)


Research evidence and data show that
Research, Evidence, Educationand Data Show That:

  • Disproportionalityis not a special education problem alone. Its problems and symptoms cannot be removed from the general education, gifted education, and higher education discourses (Artiles, A., 1998).

  • Civil rights concerns and ethical issues around equity and justice are involved – i.e., resegregation after Brown v. Board of Education poses neo-challenges (Patton, J., 1998).


R esearch evidence and data show that3
R Educationesearch, Evidence and Data show that:

  • DISPROPORTIONALITY CAN BE VIEWED AS A SYMPTOM OF THE FACT THAT CERTAIN ETHNIC GROUPS, especially males in these groups, HAVE NOT HAD OPPORTUNITIES TO LEARN, TO IDENTIFY WITH EDUCATION AND ‘EDUCATIONAL’ ATTAINMENT, AND WHO “ABT” . ( Meyer, G., and Patton, J. 2001)


R esearch evidence and data show that4
R Educationesearch, Evidence and Data show that:

  • SOME CRITICS OF SPECIAL EDUCATION ATTRIBUTE OVERREPRESENTATION TO CULTURAL AND GENDER BIAS IN REFERRAL, TESTING, ELIGIBILITY, AND PLACEMENT PROCEDURES.

    (Meyer, G., and Patton, J. 2001)


R esearch evidence and data show that5
R Educationesearch, Evidence and Data show that:

  • SOME CRITICS POINT TO DISPROPORTIONALITY AS BEING A SYMPTOM OF THE LACK OF CULTURALLY COMPETENT AND RESPONSIVE SYSTEMS, REGULAR EDUCATION SUPPORTS AND THE LACK OF CULTURAL CONTINUITY AMONG THE HOME, SCHOOL, AND COMMUNITY AS A CAUSAL FACTOR. ( Meyer, G., and Patton, J. 2001)

  • DISPROPORTIONALITY HAS EXPOSED THE LACK OF TEACHER EFFICACY AS A SYMPTOM OF THE PROBLEM. ( Meyer, G., and Patton, J. 2001)


R esearch evidence and data show that6
R Educationesearch, Evidence and Data show that:

  • VOICES FROM CULTURALLY AND LINGUISTICALLY DIVERSE PARENTS, FAMILIES AND COMMUNITIES ARE GENRERALLY ABSENT IN THE DISCOURSE ON DISPROPORTIONALITY.

    ( Meyer, G., and Patton, J. 2001)


Disproportionality vital statistics
Disproportionality: EducationVital Statistics

  • Regarding Discipline:

    • African American students with dis. are 3+ times as likely as White students with dis. to be suspended and 2.5 X more likely to be removed for more than 10 days. (Harvard Civil Rights Project, 2003).


What are the risks of being identified
WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF BEING IDENTIFIED… Education

  • A Normal Predicted Risk Ratio would be 1.0


Relative risk or odds ratio national
Relative Risk or Odds Ratio – EducationNational

  • What is the risk of identification as MR for African American students, compared to the risk for White students?

    • African American students are 2.40 more likely than White students to be identified with MR.

    • One can infer from the data that this risk ratio is much higher for males.

      (NCCREST, 2004)


Mental retardation national
Mental Retardation-National Education

  • Hispanic students are less at risk than White students for identification (RI= .92%, OR = .78).

  • Over time there has been a substantial reduction in this category.

  • States with the highest RI for Black students are Mass., Alabama, Arkansas, Iowa, and Indiana.

  • States with the highest RI for Hispanic students are Mass., Nebraska, Hawaii, and Indiana, and the highest RI are New Mexico, California, Arizona, and Texas.

    (NCCREST, 2004)


Learning disabilities national
Learning Disabilities – National Education

  • Odds ratios are lowest for Asian/Pacific Islanders (0.37) and highest for American Indian/Alaskan Native students (1.24).

  • Odds ratios for Black and Hispanic students are close to 1.0.

  • The most significant pattern is the dramatic increase of children from all racial/ethnic groups in this category.

  • States with the highest RI for Black students are Delaware, Rhode Island, New Mexico, and Montana.

  • States with the highest RI for Hispanic students are Delaware, New York, and Rhode Island.

    (NCCREST, 2004)


Emotional disorders national
Emotional Disorders-National Education

  • Black students, especially males, are most at risk for identification (RI=1.45%, OR = 1.59), followed by American Indian/Alaskan Native students (RI=1.03, OR =1.12).

  • Hispanic students are less at risk (RI= .55, OR =.60).

  • For all ethnic groups the risk of being classified as ED has gradually increased over the years.

  • States with the highest RI for Black students are Minnesota, Montana, Iowa, and Vermont.

  • States with the highest RI for Hispanic students are Hawaii, Vermont, Maine, and Minnesota.

    (NCCREST, 2004)


High incidence mr ed ld in maec service area
High Incidence (MR+ED+LD) in MAEC Service Area Education

  • African American students are 9.08 (DC); 2.53 (DL); 1.60 (MD); 1.47 (PA); 1.55 (VA); and 1.23 (WV) more likely than White students to be identified as HI.*

    *It should be noted that the MR and LD categories are probably reducing the risk ratios in the aggregate HI category.

    Source: USDOE, OSEP, DASystem(DANS), State Population data from the US Census http://www.census.gov. http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/. Complied by http://nccrest.eddata.net/data/index.php


Additional factors that shape disproportionality
Additional Factors that Shape Disproportionality Education

  • Misperceptions and Bias at pre- and referral stages

  • Teacher quality challenges (i.e., absence of highly qualified, experienced, caring and culturally competent teachers) – Teacher efficacy and value-added dimensions of teachers. (Sanders & Rivers, 2002)

  • Learning to read challenges

  • Lack of availability of English as a Second Language programs

  • Paucity of Prevention and Early Intervention models

  • Contexts, race, culture and language matter even more today


“The underlying phenomena in all processes in person and culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”

Spindler,G. and L. Pathways to CulturalAwareness. 1994


What is culture
What culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”Is Culture?

  • Integrated pattern of human behavior of a racial, ethnic, or social group including:

    -- Thoughts

    -- Communication

    -- Actions

    -- Customs

    -- Beliefs

    -- Values

    -- Institutions


A definition of culture
A Definition of CULTURE culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”

CULTURE refers to the sum total of

ways of living developed by a group of

human beings to meet biological and

psychological needs. Ordinarily, culture

includes patterns of thought, behavior,

language, customs, institutions and

material objects.

(Leighton,1982)


What is culture cont
What Is Culture? (Cont.) culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”

Culture shapes and influences behavior; it

does not determine behavior.

Everyone has personal prejudices about

culture that are reflections of ideas and

images in society. At best we are …

Limited knowledge about a cultural group

produces misconceptions and

misinterpretations about individuals in the

culture.


What is culture cont1
What Is Culture? (CONT.) culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”

Verbal communication is shaped by cultural

experience:

  • Rates of speech

  • Voice modulation (soft / loud)

  • Pauses between sentences

  • Use of silence in conversation

  • Time between questions and responses

    What we have learned as rude or polite

    affects how we view others.


Surface deep culture the iceberg
Surface/Deep Culture—The culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”Iceberg


Time as a cultural value
Time as a Cultural Value culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”

“You are all three hours late and you act like

you’re four days early!”

Dick Gregory, activist/comedian at “They Longest

Walk” rally in Washington DC, 1978, when the

American Indian walkers finally arrived in the park.

  • What does it mean to be “on time?”

  • What time is “dinnertime?”

  • How do you feel when someone arrives “late” to a meeting? Early?

  • Why?


Communication as a cultural value
Communication as a Cultural Value culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”

Non-verbal communication patterns do not

have the same meaning in all cultures:

  • Body language

  • Eye contact

  • Physical proximity

  • Deference

  • Respect

    How do these differences affect student/

    parent/professional relationships?


Communication as a cultural value1
Communication as a Cultural Value culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”

Comments form parents of color regarding their experience with

professionals:

“They ask questions, then do not give you time to answer them.

I think they’re rude, and they think I’m just dumb.”

“So many people, talking so fast and so loud! I want to say

‘explain what you mean’ but I just sat there, waiting for the

meeting to end so I could run from the room.”

“ The teacher cancelled my son’s IEP meeting because I

brought my baby. Mom was sick and couldn’t watch her, and I

could never leave her with someone not in my Family. I took the

day off work for the meeting, too.”


Cultural values affect perspective of disability
Cultural Values Affect Perspective of Disability culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”

  • In mainstream North American culture, “disability” is a medical

    or mental health condition, for which parents should seek

    treatment.

  • In some cultures, children may be seen as gifts from the

    Creator, which means they are to be accepted as they are.

    Native American languages do not have a word for “disability”

  • In some cultures, a child’s disability may be viewed as

    retribution for past family sins.

  • Some families of color believe that racism plays a role in their

    child’s identification as mental retardation or emotionally disabled.

    Who is correct?


Cultural and class knapsack
Cultural and Class Knapsack culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”

  • Assumptions about the Self and the “Other”

  • Perceptions and Predilections of the “Other”

  • Images of the “Other”

  • Stereotyping and Beliefs of the “Other”


Computers
Computers culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”


Collective stereotypes and strerotype threats
Collective Stereotypes and Strerotype Threats culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”


Culturally Responsive Research, Policies and Practices Needed: A Call For New Research and Pedagogical Solutions


Disproportionality research policy questions
Disproportionality Research & Policy Questions Needed: A Call For

  • There is a need to analyze educational, social, cultural, political and economic factors associated with disproportionality at more discrete levels of classrooms, schools, and local school districts, in addition to state and national analyses. These analyses should include investigations of disproportionality for inclusive as compared to separate placement settings and examine the nature and proportionality of identification of males as compared with females.

    (Oswald, Continho, Best and Singh, 2001)


Disproportionality research and policy questions begging for answers cont
Disproportionality Research and Policy Questions: Begging for Answers (cont.)

  • Given the current move towards “response to treatment” (RTI) models for identifying students for special education, we must explore if culturally and linguistically diverse learners, especially males, are receiving authenticculturallyresponsiveinstruction and earlyinterventionsbefore it is determined that they have deficits that qualify them for special education?

    Klinger, J. , NCCREST (2004)


Disproportionality research policy questions cont
Disproportionality Research & Policy Questions: (cont.) for Answers (cont.)

  • There is a need for a research and policy agenda that focuses on changes needed in the training of highly qualified, caring, committed and culturally competent teachers. There needs to be enhanced research and practice that “recognizes and explores the effects of implicit and explicit racial, cultural and gender stereotyping”. This research and practice should be incorporated into training programs.”

    (Donovan & Cross, 2002, p. 317; Patton, J. in press.)


Disproportionality research policy questions cont1
Disproportionality Research & Policy Questions: (cont.) for Answers (cont.)

  • There is a need for carefully crafted research that examines the “cultural and class knapsacks” of education and related service professionals and the dynamics “behind the disproportionality curtain.”

  • As an example, careful attentions should be paid on who is referring these learners and how have they been trained? The attitudes and perceptions they hold about ethnic minorities, poor children, those learning English as a second language, and the like should be explored?

    (Patton, J. in press)


We must explore our cultural and class knapsacks
We Must Explore Our for Answers (cont.)Cultural and Class Knapsacks

  • Assumptions about the Self and the “Other”

  • Perceptions and Predilections of the “Other”

  • Images of the “Other”

  • Stereotyping and Beliefs of the “Other”


We must explore our cultural and class knapsacks in order to
We Must Explore Our for Answers (cont.)Cultural and Class Knapsacks In Order to:

  • Lighten Our Loads


Needed federal and state policies
Needed Federal and State Policies for Answers (cont.)

  • There is a need to reexamine and revise the legal requirements at federal and state levels concerning the determination of eligibility for special education.

    • Governmental policies and mandates related to school financing and the allocation of resources must be explored.

    • Accountability measures, including how high stakes testing results are used to evaluate schools, need to be examined.

  • Policies and programs are needed to provide; 1) early intervention programs to all children, especially, those in high poverty areas; 2) early screening for reading and language difficulties for all students, with follow up support.

    (NCCREST, 2004)


Needed district level policies
Needed District Level Policies for Answers (cont.)

  • There is a recurring need to reexamine and revise policies and practices related to curricula offerings, tracking, testing, use of discipline, resource allocation, and hiring.

  • There is a recurring need to reexamine and revise policies and practices that build upon Sander’s and River’s (2002) teacher value added research.

  • There is a recurring need to reexamine and revise policies and practices that build upon Sonia Nieto’s (2004) research on racial and cultural identities of urban teachers.

  • Policies and practices are needed that promote collaboration, partnerships and communities of learning at various levels:

    • Between special education and general education administrators, in order to assure that special educators play a role in developing effective intervention models designed to reduce inappropriate referrals to special education;

    • With community agencies, families and local formal and informal leaders, to build on local assets that promote culturally responsive practice.

    • With teacher education and related service professional training programs, to provide relevant coursework and quality field experiences in high-poverty culturally and linguistically diverse schools.

  • There is a need to develop School-Wide Student Intervention Teams that are Data-Driven progress monitoring in their orientation

    • There is a need to better utilize I.D.E.I.A.funds – States can use 15% of funds for early intervention/prereferral activities

      (NCCREST, 2004)


Needed school level policies
Needed School Level Policies for Answers (cont.)

  • There is a need to reexamine and revise policies related to:

    • Hiring practices in high poverty/ethnic minority schools—Explore Bonuses, and the Story in Hamilton County, TN

    • The assignment of teachers to classes in high poverty/ethnic minority schools-Explore Bonuses and the Story in Hamilton County, TN

    • The recruitment of CLD teachers, administrators and related service professionals, especially males.

    • The assignment of students, especially males, to classes (and whether students are grouped by ability level of heterogeneously across classrooms)

    • Discipline practices and procedures, especially how they impact males (might explore PBS)

    • Student retention of males

    • Class size

    • Scheduling

    • The use of paraprofessionals

    • How resources are allocated

    • The curriculum and pedagogy of the teachers—Searching for “mirrors” and “windows”

  • To develop effective and transformative school leadership teams that are able to see the “big picture” and make sure the conglomeration of different programs and policies they enact are strategic and make sense when implemented simultaneously, are equitable, and are culturally responsive.

    (NCCREST, 2004)


At the classroom level
At the Classroom Level for Answers (cont.)

  • Create and Utilize Curricula and Curriculum Practices that:

    • Incorporate Culturally Responsive Evidence-Based Instructional Practices

    • Provide Culturally Responsive Academic and Behavioral Services

    • Accentuate Locally Based Culturally Responsive Professional Development Programs and Communities of Learning and Practice

      • Early Intervention

      • Support in General Education Classroom

      • Effective Pre-referral Teams

      • Understanding Eligibility Criteria for Local School Divisions on the part of Parents and Families

        (Patton, J., in press.)


At the classroom level1
At the Classroom Level for Answers (cont.)

  • Create and Utilize Curricula and Curriculum Practices that::

    • Develop and maintain high expectations for all learners, especially males

    • Build upon the Prior Knowledge and Historical and Lived, Social, Cultural and Political Experiences of Learners

    • Utilizes Curriculum content that reflects mirrors and windows—”When someone with the authority of a teacher, say, describes the world and you are not in it, there is a moment of psychic disequilibrium, as if you looked into a mirror and saw nothing.” Adrienne Rich, “Invisibility in the Academe”, Blood, Bread, and Poetry, 1986.

    • Allows for “Code Switching”

    • Are “Family” Oriented

    • Are Malecentric

    • Build upon the strengths and axiological, metaphysical and epistemological orientations of these learners

    • Recognize and respond to their often “warring souls”

    • Eliminate the number of “ABT” learners

      ( Patton, J., in press; Patton, J. (1998) ; NCCREST:

      http://www.nccrest.org/publications_briefs.html)


Other solutions for culturally competent leaders interventions
Other Solutions for Culturally Competent Leaders-Interventions

  • There is a need to create and recreate Home/School/ Family

    Relationships that:

    • Authentically Involve them in Pre-referral Teams

    • Authentically Communicate in Culturally and Class Reciprocal Ways

    • ID What is going well? Accomplishments!!

    • Ask for their Input into School Curricula

    • Constantly seek ways to improve Communication and the General Perception of School Environment

    • Address over-underrepresentation of African American, Certain Minority Students, the poor and males in Special Education.

      (Patton, J., in press; The Prereferral Intervention Process, Council for Exceptional Children, 2002.


Other solutions for culturally competent leaders
Other Solutions for Culturally Competent Leaders Leaders-Interventions

  • Understand The Challenge!

  • Obtain Knowledge at Deep Levels!

  • Embrace The Challenge—Without Finger Pointing!

  • Realize that DisproportionalityAffects All of Us—Socially, Culturally, Politically, Economically, and Our Ultimate Legacy!

  • View Disproportionality as a Civil Rights Challenge and a Sympton….

  • Recognize that a Rising Tide Lifts all Boats!


Other solutions for culturally competent community leaders
Other Solutions for Culturally Competent Leaders-Interventions Community Leaders

  • Work Collaboratively with the Local School Boards and their Leadership

  • Establish and Build Relationships with Other Key Stakeholders – Involving the whole “Village” in Problem Identification and Solutions

  • View and Understand the Challenge more holistically and employ holistic and systemic solutions that reflect synergy – 2+2=5

  • Involve Diverse Individuals and Stakeholder Groups in Enhancing their Knowledge of the Challenge and in Developing and Executing a Strategic Plan of Attack


Who are our stakeholders
Who Are our Stakeholders? Leaders-Interventions


Coalition building
Coalition Building Leaders-Interventions

  • Who Are These Stakeholders?:

    • The State Directors of Exceptional Education

    • The School Superintendents, Building Support Leaders, Teachers and Related Service Professionals

    • State and Local School Board Leadership

    • State and Local Elected Officials—City Council, etc.

    • Leaders and Members in the Urban League, NAACP, etc

    • Representatives from the Business Community—Chamber of Congress, etc.

  • Judges, Social and Community Service agency officials, Juvenile Justice officials, Members of Fraternities, Sororities and the like

  • Public Safety Officials

  • Leisure and Recreation Specialists (Boy’s and Girl’s Clubs)

  • Clergy

  • Barbers, Beauticians, and Ordinary Folks

  • Other Formal and informal Community Leaders

  • Parents, Families, Neighborhood Leaders, Community Leaders

  • YOU!!



No arrangement is neutral
No Arrangement Is Neutral Leaders-Interventions

  • E3


Change plato and the cave allegory
CHANGE-- Leaders-Interventions Plato and the Cave Allegory


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