Where are the African American Male Learners?--Disproportionality And Effective Culturally Responsive Research, Policies and Practices to Reduce this Scourge. Presented by: Dr. James M. Patton, Professor The College of William and Mary [email protected] To MAEC Conference Washington, D. C.
Where are the African American Male Learners?--Disproportionality And Effective Culturally Responsive Research, Policies and Practices to Reduce this Scourge
Dr. James M. Patton, Professor
The College of William and Mary
Washington, D. C.
March 24, 2006
Historical Contexts Learners?--Disproportionality And Effective Culturally Responsive Research, Policies and Practices to Reduce this Scourge
“Whereas, the Disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education has been consistently confirmed through numerous scholarly studies since the 1970’s and recognized in U.S. Federal and Canadian provincial laws.”
Resolved that the:
Donovan, M. S., & Cross, C. T. (Eds.). (2002). Disproportionate Representation (1997)Minority students in special and gifted education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
National Research Council Of the National Academy of Science (NAS) Recommendations on Special Education.
(Donovan & Cross, 2002)
Recommendations for States:
Well then what does that elephant in the room look like?
(Tyre, P., The Trouble with Boys, Newsweek, January, 30. 2006)
OVERREPRESENTATION RESULTS IN LEARNERS BECOMING DISTANCED INNAPPROPRIATELY FROM THE GENERAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM, WHICH, IN TURN, LIMITS THEIR OPPORTUNITIES TO BE EXPOSED TO THIS CURRICULUM AND ACCOMPANYING SYSTEMS, STRUCTURES, PERSONNEL, AND OTHER RESOURCES. ACCORDINGLY, RESULTS ON HIGH STAKES TESTS AND OTHER ‘MEASURES’ OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT MUST BE SITUATED IN THIS REALITY. ( Patton. J. 1998)
(Meyer, G., and Patton, J. 2001)
( Meyer, G., and Patton, J. 2001)
*It should be noted that the MR and LD categories are probably reducing the risk ratios in the aggregate HI category.
Source: USDOE, OSEP, DASystem(DANS), State Population data from the US Census http://www.census.gov. http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/. Complied by http://nccrest.eddata.net/data/index.php
“The underlying phenomena in all processes in person and culture relations is that basic cultural assumptions and perceptions held by persons of different cultures seriously influence behavior, perceptions of behavior, and communication. They are the starting point of differential rewards, punishments, oppositions, consequences, and the use of power to coerce, eliminate, damage, and promote.”
Spindler,G. and L. Pathways to CulturalAwareness. 1994
CULTURE refers to the sum total of
ways of living developed by a group of
human beings to meet biological and
psychological needs. Ordinarily, culture
includes patterns of thought, behavior,
language, customs, institutions and
Culture shapes and influences behavior; it
does not determine behavior.
Everyone has personal prejudices about
culture that are reflections of ideas and
images in society. At best we are …
Limited knowledge about a cultural group
produces misconceptions and
misinterpretations about individuals in the
Verbal communication is shaped by cultural
What we have learned as rude or polite
affects how we view others.
“You are all three hours late and you act like
you’re four days early!”
Dick Gregory, activist/comedian at “They Longest
Walk” rally in Washington DC, 1978, when the
American Indian walkers finally arrived in the park.
Non-verbal communication patterns do not
have the same meaning in all cultures:
How do these differences affect student/
Comments form parents of color regarding their experience with
“They ask questions, then do not give you time to answer them.
I think they’re rude, and they think I’m just dumb.”
“So many people, talking so fast and so loud! I want to say
‘explain what you mean’ but I just sat there, waiting for the
meeting to end so I could run from the room.”
“ The teacher cancelled my son’s IEP meeting because I
brought my baby. Mom was sick and couldn’t watch her, and I
could never leave her with someone not in my Family. I took the
day off work for the meeting, too.”
or mental health condition, for which parents should seek
Creator, which means they are to be accepted as they are.
Native American languages do not have a word for “disability”
retribution for past family sins.
child’s identification as mental retardation or emotionally disabled.
Who is correct?
(Oswald, Continho, Best and Singh, 2001)
Klinger, J. , NCCREST (2004)
(Donovan & Cross, 2002, p. 317; Patton, J. in press.)
(Patton, J. in press)
(Patton, J., in press.)
( Patton, J., in press; Patton, J. (1998) ; NCCREST:
(Patton, J., in press; The Prereferral Intervention Process, Council for Exceptional Children, 2002.