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### ME33: Fluid FlowInformation and Introduction

Eric G. Paterson

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

The Pennsylvania State University

Spring 2005

Note to Instructors

These slides were developed1 during the spring semester 2005, as a teaching aid for the undergraduate Fluid Mechanics course (ME33: Fluid Flow) in the Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering at Penn State University. This course had two sections, one taught by myself and one taught by Prof. John Cimbala. While we gave common homework and exams, we independently developed lecture notes. This was also the first semester that Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications was used at PSU. My section had 93 students and was held in a classroom with a computer, projector, and blackboard. While slides have been developed for each chapter of Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, I used a combination of blackboard and electronic presentation. In the student evaluations of my course, there were both positive and negative comments on the use of electronic presentation. Therefore, these slides should only be integrated into your lectures with careful consideration of your teaching style and course objectives.

Eric Paterson

Penn State, University Park

August 2005

1 These slides were originally prepared using the LaTeX typesetting system (http://www.tug.org/)

and the beamer class (http://latex-beamer.sourceforge.net/), but were translated to PowerPoint for

wider dissemination by McGraw-Hill.

Time and Location

- ME 033, Fluid Flow, Section 1
- Time: 12:20 - 1:10, MWF
- Location: 220 Hammond

Instructor and TA

- Eric Paterson
- Assoc. Prof. of Mechanical Engineering
- Dept Head and Senior Research Assoc., Applied Research Lab
- Ph.D., The University of Iowa, Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research
- Research Interests
- Naval Hydrodynamics: turbulence simulation, cavitation, flow control, vehicle maneuvering, hydroacoustics
- Biological Fluid Dynamics: cardiovascular flows, artificial organs, bio-mimetics
- Shankar Narayanan
- Graduate student in Mechanical Engineering
- Home country: India
- Research interest: Computational Fluid Dynamics

Textbook

- Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications
- Yunus Cengal (UNV Reno) and John Cimbala (Penn State)
- ISBN: 0072472367
- Published Jan. 2005
- Includes DVD with movies created at PSU by Prof. Gary Settles
- Available at
- PSU Bookstore, $135.00
- Amazon.com, $132.50

ANGEL

- All class material and announcements will be posted on ANGEL (www.angel.psu.edu), Penn State’s Course Management System
- Syllabus
- Class policies
- Schedule/Calendar
- Lecture notes
- Message boards
- Homework assignments
- Grades

Grading and Academic Integrity Policies

- All exams and homework assignments are comprehensive
- Homework: 35%
- Mid-Term: 30%
- Final: 35%
- College of Engineering\'s Academic Integrity website explains what behaviors are in violation of academic integrity, and the review process for such violations
- Specifically for this course
- First offense: zero score for the item in question
- Second offense: failure of the course

Homework

- Philosophy
- One of the best ways to learn something is through practice and repetition
- Therefore, homework assignments are extremely important in this class!
- Homework sets will be carefully designed, challenging, and comprehensive. If you study and understand the homework, you should not have to struggle with the exams

Homework

- Policy
- Homework is due on Friday at the beginning of class.
- Homework turned in late will receive partial credit according to the following rules:
- 10% off if turned in after class, but before 5:00 on the due date
- 25% off if turned in after 5:00 on the due date, but by 5:00 the next school day
- 50% off if turned in after 5:00 the next school day, but within one week
- No credit if turned in after one week
- Exceptions will be made under extreme circumstances.
- Solutions will be made available within a week after the due date
- To ease grading, homework submissions MUST follow specified format (see ANGEL)

Homework

- Policy, continued
- Students are allowed (and encouraged) to work in groups of two or three on the homework assignments, provided that each person in the group is contributing to each solution. If students choose to work in a group, only one completed assignment needs to be turned in per group. Please make sure that each student\'s name is indicated clearly on the cover page of the homework assignment. All students in a group will receive the same grade for that assignment
- Only a subset of assigned problems will be thoroughly graded. The remaining problems will only be checked for correct answers

Motivation for Studying Fluid Mechanics

- Fluid Mechanics is omnipresent
- Aerodynamics
- Bioengineering and biological systems
- Combustion
- Energy generation
- Geology
- Hydraulics and Hydrology
- Hydrodynamics
- Meteorology
- Ocean and Coastal Engineering
- Water Resources
- …numerous other examples…
- Fluid Mechanics is beautiful

Tsunamis

- Tsunami: Japanese for “Harbour Wave”
- Created by earthquakes, land slides, volcanoes, asteroids/meteors
- Pose infrequent but high risk for coastal regions.

Tsunamis: role in religion, evolution, and apocalyptic events?

- Most cultures have deep at their core a flood myth in which the great bulk of humanity is destroyed and a few are left to repopulate and repurify the human race. In most of these stories, God is meting out retribution, punishing those who have strayed from his path
- Were these “local” floods due to a tsunami instead of global events?

Tsunamis: role in religion, evolution, and apocalyptic events?

- Scientists now widely accept that the worldwide sequence of mass extinctions at the Cretaceous Tertiary (K/T) boundary 65 million years ago was directly caused by the collision of an asteroid or comet with Earth. Evidence for this includes the large (200-km diameter) buried impact structure at Chicxulub in Mexico\'s Yucatan Peninsula, the worldwide iridium-enriched layer at the K/T boundary, and the tsunamic deposits well inland in North America, all dated to the same epoch as the extinction event.

Tsunamis: role in religion, evolution, and apocalyptic events?

- La Palma Mega-Tsunami = geologic time bomb? Cumbre Vieja volcano erupts and causes western half of La Palma island to collapse into the Atlantic and send a 1500 ft. tsunami crashing into Eastern coast of U.S.

Methods for Solving Fluid Dynamics Problems

- Analytical Fluid Dynamics (AFD) Mathematical analysis of governing equations, including exact and approximate solutions. This is the primary focus of ME33
- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Numerical solution of the governing equations
- Experimental Fluid Dynamics (EFD) Observation and data acquisition.

Analytical Fluid Dynamics

How fast do tsunamis travel in the deep ocean?

Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

Linearized wave equation for inviscid, irrotational flow

Shallow-water approximation, l/h >> 1

For g = 32.2 ft/s2 and h=10000 ft, c=567 ft/s = 387 miles/hr

Computational Fluid Dynamics

- In comparison to analytical methods, which are good for providing solutions for simple geometries or behavior for limiting conditions (such as linearized shallow water waves), CFD provides a tool for solving problems with nonlinear physics and complex geometry.

Animation by Vasily V. Titov, Tsunami Inundation Mapping Efforts, NOAA/PMEL

Experimental Fluid Dynamics

- Oregon State University Wave Research Laboratory
- Model-scale experimental facilities
- Tsunami Wave Basin
- Large Wave Flume
- Dimensional analysis (Chapter 7 of C&C) is very important in designing a model experiment which represents physics of actual problem

Experimental Fluid Dynamics

- Experiments are sometimes conducted in the field or at full scale
- For tsunamis, data acquisition is used for warning
- DART: Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis
- Primary sensor: Bourdon tube for measuring hydrostatic pressure

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