Fermentation of chocolate
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Fermentation of Chocolate. Tommy Kaczocha. How is chocolate made. Once the bagged seeds arrive at their destination, the manufacturer's processing mill, they are cleaned to remove foreign material. Next, they are roasted, to loosen their husks, which are then are blown away.

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Fermentation of Chocolate

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Fermentation of chocolate

Fermentation of Chocolate

Tommy Kaczocha


How is chocolate made

How is chocolate made

  • Once the bagged seeds arrive at their destination, the manufacturer's processing mill, they are cleaned to remove foreign material.

  • Next, they are roasted, to loosen their husks, which are then are blown away.

  • The inner kernel of the seed is broken into bits called "nibs."

  • When the nibs are ground under heavy stone mills, the in the nibs is released and transforms into "chocolate liquor," a thick liquid which, when hardened produces the bitter chocolate used in recipes for baking and candy.


Bacteria fungi involved

Bacteria/ fungi involved

  • Eleven different yeasts have been involved the most that are found are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida rugosa, and Kluyveromyces marxianus.

  • There is also lactic-acid acetic-acid bacteria during which high temperatures of up to 50 degrees C and microbial products, such as ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid, which kill the beans and cause production of flavor precursors.


Bacteria or fungi pictures

Bacteria or fungi pictures

  • This is Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  • This is a type of yeast used by bakers.

  • This is Candida rugosa.

  • It is a nosocomial bloodstream pathogen.

  • This is a Kluyveromyces marxianus.

  • Kluyveromyces marxianus is a nutritional yeast and bonding agent for fodder and pet food, and as a source of ribonucleic acid in pharmaceuticals.


Fermentation process

Fermentation process

  • The first stage of chocolate making consists of a natural, seven-day microbial fermentation of the pertinacious pulp surrounding beans of the tree Theobroma cacao. There is a wide range of yeasts, lactic-acid, and acetic-acid bacteria during which high temperatures of up to 50 degrees C and microbial products, such as ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid, which kill the beans and cause production of flavor precursors. Over-fermentation leads to a rise in bacilli and filamentous fungi that can cause off flavors.

  • Once fermentation begins, the sugar in the pulp is converted into acids that change the chemical composition of the beans. Fermentation generates temperatures as high as 125° F, starting enzymes that create the flavor precursors.

  • The cacao beans are transferred to wooden crates or baskets with banana leaves in between and on top to start an optimal fermentation. The duration of the fermentation depends on the variety and is from 2 to more than 7 days. The length of the fermentation also affects the smell, so if you want it to smell good then the beans are fermented for a longer time.

  • Theobrominealso known as xantheoseis a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2. It is found in chocolate, also in a lot of other foods, including the leaves of the tea plant, and the kola (or cola) nut.

  • Acetic acidis an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3CO2H.


History of chocolate

History of Chocolate

First Encounters

  • Monkeys were the first to find the cacao plant edible and delectable, not man. In the hottest parts of ancient Mesoamerica, these colored, rugby ball-shaped pods hung off trees. Monkeys learned of the sweet pulp within the thick pod.  Ancient men followed their example, taking the fruit off trees as they walked past.

    Cortes Courts the Cacao Bean

  • Around 1519, Hernan Cortes arrived at the great court of the Aztec king, Montezuma. He and his men saw Montezuma’s 50-cup-a-day chocolate ritual, found the royal storehouses with beans and observed the custom of using cacao as currency.

    American Ingenuity: The Hershey Bar

  • American manufacturing standards were not as advanced as those in Europe. Milton Hershey brought European-style chocolate-making methods to the U.S., combined them with some American inventiveness, and began a new era in chocolate. The Hershey Chocolate Company would soon become the biggest chocolate company in the world, producing about 50,000 pounds of cocoa a day by the 1920’s.


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