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Chapter 14: Latin West . Warm Up Chapter 13. Mali empire prospered bc of: Ruler of Mali Empire: His impact in Africa: Capital of Mali Empire: Ibn Battuta : How does Islam get in Africa: How do the Turks view the Hinduist ? How did Islam get in India:. I. Rural Growth and Crises

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Chapter 14: Latin West

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Chapter 14 latin west

Chapter 14: Latin West

Warm up chapter 13

Warm Up Chapter 13

  • Mali empire prospered bc of:

  • Ruler of Mali Empire:

  • His impact in Africa:

  • Capital of Mali Empire:

  • IbnBattuta:

  • How does Islam get in Africa:

  • How do the Turks view the Hinduist?

  • How did Islam get in India:

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  • I. Rural Growth and Crises

    • A. Peasants and Population

    • Peasants were bound to the land in serfdom

    • Life of a peasant:

    • Feudalism bound the people to meager life of serfdom

    • Peasants lived in a one room cottage with little furniture and no luxuries

    • Over 50% of their labor fruits went to the landowner

    • Serfs had no incentive to improve farming practices..

    • Why?

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  • Role of Men and women: both worked in the fields but women were still subordinate to men

  • Pg. 382 Thomas Aquinas quote

  • Population doubled between 1000 and 1445 (impact):population grew because of new agricultural technologies but made quality of life go down for peasants

  • B. Black Death and impact

  • brought from Kaffa to Italy in 1346by the Mongol expansion

  • Plague ravaged for 2 years throughout Europe killing 1/3 of the people

Late 15 th century

Late 15th century

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  • The most common form of the Black Death was the bubonic plague

  • This was usually spread by fleas that lived on rats

  • Another form was called the pneumonic plague and it was spread through the air by personal contact

  • impact on labor:

  • Labor became more expensive and gave rise to peasant uprisings, higher wages, and eventually end to serfdom

  • First sign of infection was the development of large dark splotches on the skin

  • Most people died within a few days

  • Many people believed the plague was a punishment sent by God

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  • Serfdom disappears in Europe because of the high price of labor and the low cost of food

  • Many serfs bought their freedom or ran away

  • Nobles could not use all the land they had so they began to sell it to others

  • C. Mines and Mills

  • Industrial Technologies: Watermill and Windmill

  • Mills powered by water could now grind grain and flour, saw logs, and make paper

  • Mills were built along rivers and was controlled by dams

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  • During the winter water mills were useless so the people used windmills to power their endeavors

  • Mills were expensive to build but created great profit to owners

  • Mining boomed during this period

  • Iron, silver, copper, and lead

  • Used these metals for cannons, coins, church bells, etc.

  • Because of these new “job opportunities” many people (serfs) moved to the urban areas

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  • II. Urban Revival

    • A. Trading Cities

    • Urbanization: people moving from the countryside to the cities

    • Cities are now the focal for economy not the countrysides

    • Most of the early trading cities were found in Italy, with Venice being the most important

    • Other Italian cities, wanting to get wealthy, created their own trade routes

    • Trade in the north was dominated by the Hanseatic League

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  • Group of northern German cities and towns that worked together to promote and protect trade

  • Controlled most of the trade between Europe, Russia, and the Baltic region

  • Textile was dominated by England and parts of Italy

  • England could export cloth at a great profit

  • B. Civic Life

  • more freedom, social mobility in the cities than on the feudal manor

  • Jews blamed for Black Death creating anti Semitism

  • Guilds regulated trade, set standards, and prices for goods sold in cities

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Venice in 1271

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  • Banking industry:

  • Now money became more accepted

  • This led to some merchants allowing their customers to buy goods on credit

  • Credit = the promise of later payment

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  • III. Learning, Literature, and Renaissance

    • A. Universities and Learning

    • Monasteries were center of learning

    • By 1200 AD, colleges and universities emerged: as centers of learning focusing on law, medicine, or theology

    • Bologna—famous for law faculty

    • Theology was most prominent study because theologians sought to synthesize the rational philosophy of Greeks with the Christian faith known as scholasticism

Warm up

Warm Up

  • Explain the impact of the Black Death on labor:

  • Why did people go to the church instead of doctors for healing?

  • Urbanization:

  • Italian city that dominates trade:

  • German cities states that dominate trade in northern Europe:

  • Group that regulated trade and set prices:

  • Why was theology the most prominent study?

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  • B. Humanists and Printers

  • “new learning” – interest in and study of the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature

  • Studied the original manuscripts

  • Geoffrey Chaucer

  • The Canterbury Tales consists of a collection of stories told by a group of 29 pilgrims journeying to the tomb of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury

  • Dante

  • Divine Comedy tells the story of the journey through nine layers of Hell and entry into Paradise

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  • Erasmus

  • The best of the northern humanists, was Dutch

  • Criticized the Church and wanted to reform it, but not leave it

  • Saw education as the means to reform

  • Gutenberg

  • Influence of Humanist writers increased by the printing press

  • Gutenberg perfected printing in 1454

  • By 1500 10 million works had been printed!





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  • C. Artists

  • Four major artists of the Renaissance:

  • Michelangelo – painted the Sistene Chapel, sculptural masterpiece = David

  • Leonardo da Vinci – Mona Lisa and the Last Supper

  • Raphael – famous for his madonnas (images of Jesus and Mary)

  • Donatello – sculptor, lived during the Early Renaissance

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  • IV. Political and Military Transformation

    • A. Monarchs, Nobles, and Clergy

    • Weak monarchs, limited power

    • Innovations in weaponry: Armor piercing crossbows and firearms are brought about during the 13th century

    • King Philip the Fair of France reduced power of pope:

    • Began the first French parliament, the Estates-General

    • Arrested the pope and put a new French pope in power in Avignon

    • The pope’s authority was being compromised and a period of rival popes claimed authority in both Rome and Avignon came about

    • This rivalry causes the Great Western Schism that lasts for 37 years

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  • England kings power was limited by pope

  • King John was fighting a war, in which he lost almost all of England’s French holdings, and needed money

  • He placed a new tax on the nobility

  • The nobles refused to pay and instead rebelled against their king

  • He is forced to sign the Magna Carta – “Great Charter”

  • Gives rights to the nobles that the king can’t take away and places limits on the king’s power

  • King can no longer arrest and punish people without following legal procedures

  • Set forth ideas about limiting gov’t and executive power

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  • B. Hundred Years War, 1337-1453

  • France v England, Edward III calmed French throne

  • Military technology:crossbows, longbows, pikes, and cannons

  • French had superior cannons and destroyed English allies and finally defeated them

  • War left French monarchy stronger than before

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  • C. New Monarchies in France and England

  • New monarchies have stronger power, national boundaries established

  • castle and knights now outdated: because of the invention of firearms

  • Militaries now consisted of bowmen, pikemen, musketeers, and artillery

  • monarchs taxed land, merchants, and church

  • Shift had now changed from nobles and church to monarchs

  • Monarchs now gain power (parliament in England, Estates General in France)

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  • D. Iberian Unification

  • Spain and Portugal emerged through marriage alliance

  • Reconquest of Spain from Muslims in 1212

  • All of the Muslims were eventually driven out at the battle of Grenada

  • A major step in unifying Spain occurred with the marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469

  • They pursued a strict policy of conformity to Catholicism

  • 1492 – all professed Jews were expelled from Spain, followed by the Muslims

  • To be Spanish was to be Catholic

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