Chapter 14 latin west
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Chapter 14: Latin West . Warm Up Chapter 13. Mali empire prospered bc of: Ruler of Mali Empire: His impact in Africa: Capital of Mali Empire: Ibn Battuta : How does Islam get in Africa: How do the Turks view the Hinduist ? How did Islam get in India:. I. Rural Growth and Crises

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Warm up chapter 13
Warm Up Chapter 13

  • Mali empire prospered bc of:

  • Ruler of Mali Empire:

  • His impact in Africa:

  • Capital of Mali Empire:

  • IbnBattuta:

  • How does Islam get in Africa:

  • How do the Turks view the Hinduist?

  • How did Islam get in India:

  • I. Rural Growth and Crises

    • A. Peasants and Population

    • Peasants were bound to the land in serfdom

    • Life of a peasant:

    • Feudalism bound the people to meager life of serfdom

    • Peasants lived in a one room cottage with little furniture and no luxuries

    • Over 50% of their labor fruits went to the landowner

    • Serfs had no incentive to improve farming practices..

    • Why?

  • Role of Men and women: both worked in the fields but women were still subordinate to men

  • Pg. 382 Thomas Aquinas quote

  • Population doubled between 1000 and 1445 (impact):population grew because of new agricultural technologies but made quality of life go down for peasants

  • B. Black Death and impact

  • brought from Kaffa to Italy in 1346by the Mongol expansion

  • Plague ravaged for 2 years throughout Europe killing 1/3 of the people

Late 15 th century
Late 15 were still subordinate to menth century

  • The most common form of the Black Death was the bubonic plague

  • This was usually spread by fleas that lived on rats

  • Another form was called the pneumonic plague and it was spread through the air by personal contact

  • impact on labor:

  • Labor became more expensive and gave rise to peasant uprisings, higher wages, and eventually end to serfdom

  • First sign of infection was the development of large dark splotches on the skin

  • Most people died within a few days

  • Many people believed the plague was a punishment sent by God

  • Serfdom disappears in Europe because of the high price of labor and the low cost of food

  • Many serfs bought their freedom or ran away

  • Nobles could not use all the land they had so they began to sell it to others

  • C. Mines and Mills

  • Industrial Technologies: Watermill and Windmill

  • Mills powered by water could now grind grain and flour, saw logs, and make paper

  • Mills were built along rivers and was controlled by dams

  • During the winter water mills were useless so the people used windmills to power their endeavors

  • Mills were expensive to build but created great profit to owners

  • Mining boomed during this period

  • Iron, silver, copper, and lead

  • Used these metals for cannons, coins, church bells, etc.

  • Because of these new “job opportunities” many people (serfs) moved to the urban areas

  • II. Urban Revival used windmills to power their endeavors

    • A. Trading Cities

    • Urbanization: people moving from the countryside to the cities

    • Cities are now the focal for economy not the countrysides

    • Most of the early trading cities were found in Italy, with Venice being the most important

    • Other Italian cities, wanting to get wealthy, created their own trade routes

    • Trade in the north was dominated by the Hanseatic League

  • Group of northern German cities and towns that worked together to promote and protect trade

  • Controlled most of the trade between Europe, Russia, and the Baltic region

  • Textile was dominated by England and parts of Italy

  • England could export cloth at a great profit

  • B. Civic Life

  • more freedom, social mobility in the cities than on the feudal manor

  • Jews blamed for Black Death creating anti Semitism

  • Guilds regulated trade, set standards, and prices for goods sold in cities

Venice in 1271 together to promote and protect trade

  • Banking industry: together to promote and protect trade

  • Now money became more accepted

  • This led to some merchants allowing their customers to buy goods on credit

  • Credit = the promise of later payment

  • III. Learning together to promote and protect trade, Literature, and Renaissance

    • A. Universities and Learning

    • Monasteries were center of learning

    • By 1200 AD, colleges and universities emerged: as centers of learning focusing on law, medicine, or theology

    • Bologna—famous for law faculty

    • Theology was most prominent study because theologians sought to synthesize the rational philosophy of Greeks with the Christian faith known as scholasticism

Warm up
Warm Up together to promote and protect trade

  • Explain the impact of the Black Death on labor:

  • Why did people go to the church instead of doctors for healing?

  • Urbanization:

  • Italian city that dominates trade:

  • German cities states that dominate trade in northern Europe:

  • Group that regulated trade and set prices:

  • Why was theology the most prominent study?

  • B. Humanists and Printers together to promote and protect trade

  • “new learning” – interest in and study of the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature

  • Studied the original manuscripts

  • Geoffrey Chaucer

  • The Canterbury Tales consists of a collection of stories told by a group of 29 pilgrims journeying to the tomb of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury

  • Dante

  • Divine Comedy tells the story of the journey through nine layers of Hell and entry into Paradise

  • Erasmus together to promote and protect trade

  • The best of the northern humanists, was Dutch

  • Criticized the Church and wanted to reform it, but not leave it

  • Saw education as the means to reform

  • Gutenberg

  • Influence of Humanist writers increased by the printing press

  • Gutenberg perfected printing in 1454

  • By 1500 10 million works had been printed!

Erasmus together to promote and protect trade

Gutenberg together to promote and protect trade

  • C. Artists together to promote and protect trade

  • Four major artists of the Renaissance:

  • Michelangelo – painted the Sistene Chapel, sculptural masterpiece = David

  • Leonardo da Vinci – Mona Lisa and the Last Supper

  • Raphael – famous for his madonnas (images of Jesus and Mary)

  • Donatello – sculptor, lived during the Early Renaissance

  • IV. Political together to promote and protect tradeand Military Transformation

    • A. Monarchs, Nobles, and Clergy

    • Weak monarchs, limited power

    • Innovations in weaponry: Armor piercing crossbows and firearms are brought about during the 13th century

    • King Philip the Fair of France reduced power of pope:

    • Began the first French parliament, the Estates-General

    • Arrested the pope and put a new French pope in power in Avignon

    • The pope’s authority was being compromised and a period of rival popes claimed authority in both Rome and Avignon came about

    • This rivalry causes the Great Western Schism that lasts for 37 years

  • England kings power was limited by pope together to promote and protect trade

  • King John was fighting a war, in which he lost almost all of England’s French holdings, and needed money

  • He placed a new tax on the nobility

  • The nobles refused to pay and instead rebelled against their king

  • He is forced to sign the Magna Carta – “Great Charter”

  • Gives rights to the nobles that the king can’t take away and places limits on the king’s power

  • King can no longer arrest and punish people without following legal procedures

  • Set forth ideas about limiting gov’t and executive power

  • B. Hundred together to promote and protect tradeYears War, 1337-1453

  • France v England, Edward III calmed French throne

  • Military technology:crossbows, longbows, pikes, and cannons

  • French had superior cannons and destroyed English allies and finally defeated them

  • War left French monarchy stronger than before

  • C. New Monarchies in France and England together to promote and protect trade

  • New monarchies have stronger power, national boundaries established

  • castle and knights now outdated: because of the invention of firearms

  • Militaries now consisted of bowmen, pikemen, musketeers, and artillery

  • monarchs taxed land, merchants, and church

  • Shift had now changed from nobles and church to monarchs

  • Monarchs now gain power (parliament in England, Estates General in France)

  • D. Iberian Unification together to promote and protect trade

  • Spain and Portugal emerged through marriage alliance

  • Reconquest of Spain from Muslims in 1212

  • All of the Muslims were eventually driven out at the battle of Grenada

  • A major step in unifying Spain occurred with the marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469

  • They pursued a strict policy of conformity to Catholicism

  • 1492 – all professed Jews were expelled from Spain, followed by the Muslims

  • To be Spanish was to be Catholic