tactics of rule european imperialism introduction
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
TACTICS OF RULE European Imperialism: Introduction

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 63

TACTICS OF RULE European Imperialism: Introduction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

TACTICS OF RULE European Imperialism: Introduction. SQ Section III Part 4. Introduction to the Excerpts: New imperialism. The question of colonialism evolved during the 1880s Europe , Japan, and the United States entered into a period of renewed imperialism

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' TACTICS OF RULE European Imperialism: Introduction' - kaethe

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
introduction to the excerpts new imperialism
Introduction to the Excerpts: New imperialism
  • The question of colonialism evolved during the 1880s
  • Europe, Japan, and the United States entered into a period of renewed imperialism
    • Europeans divided up most of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific islands
  • More than ________million square miles of land were seized by Europeans in the decades leading up to World War I
    • ________million people fell subject to new European rule
  • New imperialism enjoyed the popular support of _______________
    • Previous forms of colonization and imperialism did not have this solid foundation
  • The scramble for Africa almost led to war in Europe
    • The Berlin Conference laid the ground rules for continued European colonization and subjugation of Africa
  • New imperialism persisted in Europe through the first half of the 20th century




imperial justifications
Imperial justifications

Social Darwinism

Herbert Spencer

  • Many European states relied on __________________________to justify the new empires
    • ______________________________heavily advocated the use of Social Darwinism
    • Spencer assumed that technologically advanced civilizations enjoyed a superiority over other cultures
  • The __________ used their civilizing mission as a rationale for their expanding empire
    • _____________relied on spreading their culture
    • The ____________heavily advocated the “white man’s burden”
  • King Leopold (1832-1905) of Belgium developed a new round of empire building
    • Belgium seized Congo in the early ________s
    • Leopold ostensibly sought to bring modern technology and civilization to the Congo Free State
  • The Belgian king actually had purely economic and commercial interests for the African region
    • Historians have termed Leopold’s rule of Congo a virtual ___________________________






the excerpts themselves
The excerpts themselves

Edmund Morel

  • __________________(1873-1924) wrote King Leopold’s Rule in Africa(1904)
    • This book details the disease, slaughter, and depopulation synonymous with Belgium’s rule of Congo
  • The __________________________in __________ had already confirmed the facts of Morel’s book
    • These scandals did not stymie colonialism either in Congo or other locations
  • _____________________(1903-1950) penned “Shooting an _____________” in ___________
    • This short story describes the relationship between a subject community and its imperialists
    • Orwell specifically focuses on Burma from 1922 to 1927

Investigative Commission


George Orwell



background information edmund morel
Background InformationEdmund Morel


  • Edmund Morel worked as a British _______________ in the Congo
    • Morel first realized that slave labor was involved in Congo in __________
    • In ______________, he observed only guns and bullets being loaded onto ships headed for the Congo
      • These same ships had returned with ivory and other valuables
  • Morel first published the expose, ___________________________, in __________
    • The _______ book _________________________in Africa continued the ideas from this work
  • He collected his facts from his own experiences as well as interviews with Belgian imperial _________________




“The Black Man’s Burden”


King Leopold’s Rule


forced labor and depopultion effects on congo
Forced Labor and Depopultion: Effects on Congo

Forced labor

  • ______________became widespread throughout Congo during Belgian rule
  • ___________________ included slaughter, emigration, sickness, poverty, despair, and child neglect
    • ________________accompanied the slaughter of Congolese citizens
    • Morel blamed the system of oppression for causing __________________
    • __________________closely followed the poverty
    • Years of Belgian tyranny led to a hopeless despair and mental depression among the Congolese
    • The mistreatment of women led to _______________





child neglect

depopulation effects on congo
DEPOPULATIONEffects on Congo

Infant mortality

  • Depopulation and ___________________had enormous effects for Congo
  • Depopulation often occurred through the torture of _____________
    • Women were dragged from their homes for forced labor requisitions
      • Belgian officials often __________________women to put pressure on men to supply rubber or food taxes
      • Some women starved in prison along with their children
        • Pregnant women were not spared this terrible treatment
      • Belgian soldiers often took advantage of these female hostages



depopulation effects on congo1
DEPOPULATIONEffects on Congo
  • Young children experienced similar neglect and mutilation
  • Most children did not survive this terrible situation
  • One Belgian official declared that the Congolese who possessed “the __________ to show their stumps to the missionaries” deserved such treatment
  • This official served in the Belgian House

bad taste

responses to the events
Responses to the events
  • Morel wondered how civilized people could allow their governments to remain inactive in the face of such atrocities
    • The incidents in Congo harbored back to the horrors of the slave trade
    • These events even exceeded the violence of Arab slave catchers
  • The Congo government boasted of its success
    • Tribal _____________ stopped and the sale of tribal prisoners of war had ceased
    • Morel believed that the domestic African slave had much better prospects than the __________________enslavement of the Congolese by the Belgians
  • Belgium M & Ms: they believed this system to be “____________and ______________regeneration”
    • Morel saw it as an invasion of primitive rights unparalleled in the world
    • The _______________and ________________of the Congolese people faced utter destruction


de facto

Moral material

social ties family life

responses to the events1
Responses to the events

William Gladstone

It’s “the NEGATION of GOD!”

Only __________________ (1809-1898) could have found an adequate phrase to describe the inhumanity present in the Congo

Gladstone served _______ terms as the British prime minister

He also spoke against the ____________ brutalities in the Balkans in the ________and in __________ in the 1890s





reasons for the atrocities
Reasons for the atrocities
  • Morel sought to understand the reason for the Congolese suffering
    • They had committed no crime for which they needed to be punished
    • Morel thought that the suffering might serve as a further warning to Europe
  • The journalist hoped that the Congolese would soon rise up in revolt
    • Morel wondered about the effects of the development of brains as well as brawn in Africa
    • He then shifted away from the future, as humans can gain nothing from conjecture
  • Belgiumremained morally responsible for the events in the Congo
    • The country of Belgium suffered as a result
  • Even if the policies of the Congo State had been rational, they still would have been condemned
    • The Congo Free State could never have been a white man’s country
    • The region consisted of individuals working as part of their own selfishness
    • Only the fanaticism of dividends enticed the Congolese to work
  • European powers suffered stupidity and inhumanity by not stopping the extermination of the Congo
the belgian investigative commission
The Belgian Investigative Commission
  • The Belgian Investigative Commission released its report in ________
    • Rumors had already spread regarding the Belgian treatment of the Congolese people
  • The report supported ___________________’s works of 1903 and 1904
  • A drastic decline in ________________ resulted from the Belgian occupation of the inappropriately named Congo Free State


Edmund Morel



The Belgium government retains absolute control over the Congo Free State. Economic conditions have become stagnant and natives often cannot move. Some are granted permission to visit a neighboring village for a short time. Breaking these regulations results in arrest or punishment and the demands of agents are often excessive, as they have personal stakes in rubber yields.

A native often has to march one to two days before he can reach parts of the forest with rubber vines. The native spends a few days in this region without food or his family, exposed to the elements of weather and natural predators. Natives barely get to spend more than three consecutive days in their village as forty hours must be worked per month.


Brutal officials take hostages, imprison chiefs, and force the quartering of soldiers. The punishments and military expeditions cannot be denied. Women are imprisoned; chiefs are made to do degrading work; rubber collectors are flogged. Black officials commit brutalities.

Evidence and official reports have provided substance to the rumors of murders carried out by black soldiers. We cannot say for certain how many murders have been carried out. 142 black soldiers have killed in a desire for revenge. The official reports concerning punitive expeditions include phrases like ‘‘energetic measures’’ and ‘‘great abuses.’’ These reports also indicate that men, women, and children have been shot as they try to escape our own soldiers.

background shooting an elephant
BACKGROUND: “Shooting an Elephant”

British history

    • Photographs exist of British troops arriving in ___________________, Burma in ________
    • The British made Burma a province in __________

The narrative

  • “Shooting an Elephant” related the awkward position of young colonial ___________________
    • _____________________served in this position in Burma
    • Colonial administrators did not know local _______________ but had to assert themselves as part of the foreign ruling elite
  • This internal debate caused Orwell to decide to shoot the elephant in the story
    • Some European imperialists believed that the elephant was worth more than any Burmese villagers it could kill





George Orwell


setting the stage
Setting the stage
  • Large numbers of people hated Orwell when he served in __________________ in Lower Burma
    • Orwell was never again important enough for people to hate him
    • He worked as sub-divisional police officer of Moulmein
      • Orwell experienced an aimless, anti-European bitterness
  • No Burmese had the nerve to start a riot
    • They did commit small infractions like ___________________________on European women in bazaars
    • The Burmese baited police officers whenever no real danger was present
      • One Burman_________________Orwell up on a football field and the Burman referee looked the other way
      • The crowd subsequently laughed at this obvious infraction
    • Orwell faced “____________________________” everywhere
      • The constant insults got under Orwell’s skin
      • Young _________________________mounted the worst verbal assaults at Orwell
      • Several thousand priests lived in Moulmein
      • Orwell believes that the men had nothing more to do than stand on street corners shouting insults at Europeans


spilling betel juice


Sneering yellow faces

Buddhist priests

perplexed and upset orwell
Perplexed and Upset: Orwell


  • Orwell determined that _______________was an evil thing and that he needed to leave his job as soon as possible
    • Orwell secretly supported the Burmese in their efforts against the British
  • He hated his job much more than he could articulate in his short story
    • Orwell experienced the dirty work of empire up close
    • Orwell felt guilty when he saw the dirty prisoners huddled in lock-up cages and men whose buttocks were scarred from floggings
  • Orwell had to sort out these problems in silence since he was young and ill-educated
    • He had no idea that the British Empire was declining at that point
    • The empires that supplanted the British Empire do not live up to the latter’s splendor
    • Orwell found himself stuck between hatred for the empire and a dislike for colonial subjects
      • He despised the ________________________as a tyranny
      • Orwell also wanted to stab ______________________with bayonets
  • These feelings naturally resulted from imperialism
    • Any off-duty Anglo-Indian official would confirm such emotions

British Raj

Buddhist priests

the day of the elephant affair
The day of the elephant affair
  • The shooting of the elephant granted Orwell a glimpse into the real nature of imperialism
  • The sub-inspector of a police station across town called Orwell one morning with news of a rampaging elephant
    • At the time, the elephant was destroying the bazaar
    • The sub-inspector asked for Orwell to come handle the situation
      • Orwell wanted to see the situation for himself
  • He rode on a pony to the police station
    • Orwell brought his _____________________with him
      • The rifle was not powerful enough to kill the elephant
        • Orwell thought the noise might terrify the elephant
    • Various Burmans stopped Orwell on his way to the situation
      • The elephant was tame but had entered must

.44 Winchester

the day of the elephant affair1
The day of the elephant affair
  • The animal broke its chain the previous night and escaped
    • The _____________had set out in pursuit of the elephant in the wrong direction
      • Only the mahout could control the elephant in must
      • At the time of the incident, the mahout was _________hours away
    • The elephant suddenly reappeared in town the morning of the shooting
  • The Burmese people had no weapons to defend themselves against the elephant
    • A bamboo hut had already been destroyed
    • The elephant had also killed a cow and raided fruit-stalls
    • A municipal garbage van had been overturned by the elephant
    • The driver escaped before he was dealt damage



the day of the elephant affair2
The day of the elephant affair
  • The Burmese sub-inspector and Indian constables waited for Orwell’s arrival
    • The neighborhood was very poor, containing bamboo huts with thatched palm-leaf roofs
    • The morning was cloudy and stuffy, as it marked the beginning of the rains
    • The local Burmans did not provide useful information as to the location of the elephant
      • Stories always become vague when examined closely in the East
  • Orwell did not believe the story about the elephant until he heard nearby cries
    • He approached an old woman shooing away children from a scene
  • Children gathered around the dead body of a black_____________________coolie
    • The elephant had come upon him from the corner of his hut
    • The animal wrapped the man in his trunk, stepped on his back, and crushed the Indian


preparing for a shooting
Preparing for a shooting
  • Orwell immediately ordered an orderly to get an elephant rifle from a nearby friend’s house after seeing the dead man
    • Orwell also sent his pony back to prevent it from going mad after smelling the elephant
    • The orderly soon returned with a rifle and five cartridges
  • Burmansarrived and reported that the elephant was in a paddy field just a few hundred yards away
    • Almost the whole local population followed Orwell to the field
      • Burmanshad seen the rifle and thought Orwell was going to shoot the elephant
    • The local people did not care when the elephant had ravaged their homes
    • Upon hearing the animal would be shot, the Burmans had their interest piqued
    • The Burmans saw the activity as both fun and providing meat
orwell had no intention of shooting the elephant
Orwell had NO intention of shooting the elephant
  • The rifle had meant to serve as mere protection
  • The following crowd unnerved Orwell
    • He felt like a fool marching down the hill
  • The bottom of the hill contained a “_______________” and paddy fields 1,000 yards across
    • These soggy fields contained coarse grass and had not yet been ploughed
  • The elephant stood eight yards from the road
    • The left side faced the crowd
    • The animal appeared not to even notice the approaching crowd
      • The elephant tore up bunches of grass, beat them against his knees, and then ate them

metalled road

orwell stopped on the road
Orwell stopped on the road
  • He instantly knew, upon seeing the elephant, that the animal should ________be shot
    • The elephant looked as dangerous as a cow when peacefully eating
    • The attack of must had mostly worn off
      • The elephant likely would have harmlessly wandered until the mahout returned
  • Shooting a working elephant was comparable to destroying an expensive piece of___________
    • One ought to avoid this action if it can be avoided
    • Orwell decided to watch the elephant for a bit and then return home



a change of plans
A change of plans


  • The increasing crowd had grown to ________ by the time Orwell made his decision
    • The road was blocked for a large distance on both sides
    • Every member of the crowd thought the elephant would be shot
      • While the Burmese did not like Orwell, they respected him while he held the rifle
    • Orwell then realized he would have to shoot the elephant
      • The wills of the crowd members pushed Orwell forward
orwell then grasped the hollowness of european dominion in the east
Orwell then grasped the hollowness of European dominion in the East


  • The armed _________man supposedly commanded the scene in front of unarmed natives
  • The_____________actuallyled the actions of Orwell
  • **White men destroy their own _____________ when they become _____________
    • Europeans serve as a conventionalized ___________in this role
    • In order to impress the natives, white men have to act how natives expect in every crisis
    • Europeans’ faces grow to fit the mask they wear
  • Orwell committed himself to shooting the elephant when he asked for the rifle
    • Trailing away feebly from the elephant would be impossible
    • The crowd would _______________ at Orwell
      • The white man’s life in the East consisted of attempts to not be the subject of laughter






orwell still did not want to shoot the elephant
Orwell still did not want to shoot the elephant
  • The elephant continued beating bunches of grass against its knees
    • The preoccupied _________________________ air of elephants remained present
  • Orwell thought it murder to kill the elephant
    • He was not squeamish about killing animals
    • Orwell had never previously shot an elephant
        • Killing a large animal seemed worse to Orwell
  • He also considered the_____________ofthe elephant
    • A live elephant was worth roughly £_________
    • A dead elephant’s only value was his tusks, worth approximately £____
  • Orwell needed to quickly make up his mind to appear ___________
    • Burmansconfirmed to Orwell that the elephant had been peaceful since arriving in the field
    • Going too close to the elephant, however, might cause him to charge






the final chapter
The final chapter
  • Orwell realized the correct course of action
    • He should have walked within 25 yards of the elephant to test its behavior
      • If the animal charged, Orwell could shoot and kill it
      • If the elephant remained peaceful, the situation could wait until the mahout arrived
    • Orwell knew he would not follow these moves
      • He was a poor shot with a rifle
        • Moreover, the ground was soft mud
      • If Orwell missed with the rifle as the elephant was charging, Orwell would die
    • The main motivation for Orwell remained the ever-growing ________________
      • Orwell feared being trampled by the elephant in front of the local people
    • The only course of action that remained was to shoot the elephant and end the situation


orwell loaded the magazine and laid on the road to get a better shot
Orwell loaded the magazine and laid on the road to get a better shot
  • The crowd grew still and breathed a collective sigh
  • The German rifle possessed cross-hair sights
  • Orwell did not know how to shoot an elephant properly
    • He mistakenly aimed several inches in front of the ______________into what he believed was the elephant’s brain
    • The proper way to shoot an elephant is to aim to cut a bar from earhole to earhole


orwell fired
Orwell Fired
  • Orwell soon fired the first shot
    • He did not feel the kick or hear the bang of the rifle
    • The crowd erupted in glee upon hearing the shot
    • A change came over the elephant even before the bullet hit
    • Upon being hit, the animal appeared stricken and immensely old
    • After five seconds or so, the elephant sagged to its knees
  • Orwell fired a second shot into the same spot
    • The elephant tried to rise after the second shot hit
    • The animal’s legs sagged and head drooped
  • The third shot from Orwell sealed the elephant’s fate
    • The last remnant of strength from the animal’s legs disappeared after this shot
    • The elephant trumpeted as his rear legs sank and he momentarily jolted upward
    • The crash of the animal shook the ground all the way to Orwell

The Burmans ran past Orwell before he could get up

    • The elephant would never get up again, but it had not yet died
    • The beast breathed in rattling grasps with his side painfully rising and falling
    • His mouth lay wide open
    • The breathing did not weaken as Orwell waited for the animal to die
  • Orwell then fired the two remaining shots into the location Orwell believed to be the elephant’s heart
    • Blood pumped out of the elephant but the creature still refused to die
    • The beast died a slow and agonizing death
      • Watching the beast be both unable to move and unable to die affected Orwell
    • Orwell fired shot after shot into the elephant’s throat and heart to no effect
  • Orwell eventually left the elephant, unable to stand the situation any longer
    • It took the elephant half an hour to die
    • Burmansstripped the body to the bone by the afternoon
the aftermath
The aftermath
  • Endless discussion followed the events of the day
    • The enraged owner of the elephant could do nothing because he was ________________
    • Orwell had legally committed the correct action
      • A mad elephant had to be killed the same as any mad dog
  • Opinion was divided among Europeans
    • ______________supported Orwell
    • _____________thought that an elephant was worth more than any Indians it could have Killed
  • Orwell was very _____________the elephant killed the Indian after the fact
    • This tragedy allowed Orwell to kill the elephant
  • Orwell frequently wondered if other Europeans knew he shot the elephant just to avoid looking like a ______


Older men

Younger men



3 29 matching pp 100 101
3.29 MATCHING (pp. 100-101)

a. Leopold II

b. Edmund Morel

c. The Germans

d. The French

e. The British

f. George Orwell

g. Herbert Spencer

_____ 1. Founder of Social Darwinism

_____ 2. Wrote a book about Belgium’s King Leopold II

_____ 3. Set off the new round of empire building when he seized

the Congo in the early 1880s

_____ 4. A British journalist in the Congo

_____ 5. They talked of spreading “culture”

3 29 matching pp 100 1011
3.29 MATCHING (pp. 100-101)

_____ 6. Author of The Black Man’s Burden

_____ 7. They talked of their mission to “civilize”

_____ 8. They believed they carried the “White Man’s Burden”

_____ 9. Commissioned a 1903 investigation in the Congo

_____ 10. Author of “Shooting an Elephant”

_____ 11. His intentions in imperialism were described as “purely

commercial”—his rule was described as a “virtual


a. Leopold II

b. Edmund Morel

c. The Germans

d. The French

e. The British

f. George Orwell

g. Herbert Spencer

3 30 fill in the blank pp 101 102
3.30 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 101-102)

1. Morel writes: “Outwardly the most striking effect is ______________________: slaughter, mutilation; emigration; sickness, largely aggravated by cruel and ______________________ oppression; Poverty and even ______________________ starvation, induced by unlimited taxation in ______________________ and ___________________; a hopeless despair and mental ______________________ engendered by years of grinding tyranny; ______________________ of children by the general maltreatment of women”.




Foods stuffs




3 30 fill in the blank pp 101 1021
3.30 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 101-102)

2. Morel writes of the devastation to the daily life of the native population and the “crushing weight of ______________________, remorseless oppression; the gradual ______________________ of everything in the ______________________ life of the natives which makes that life worth living.”




3 30 fill in the blank pp 101 1022
3.30 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 101-102)

3. Morel writes about how men were pressured to pay their ____________________ or produce more by having their women taken “away from their homes for forced labor requisition”. Some women were “[seized] as ‘hostages’ and [tied up]”. Oftentimes the women and their

______________________ were thrown in prison together where many died of ______________________, neglect, or physical abuse.




3 30 fill in the blank pp 101 1023
3.30 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 101-102)

4. Morel writes that the life of the ______________________ slave under the African system is blissful beyond words if you compare his ______________________ with that of the ______________________ serf under the Leopoldian system”.




3 30 fill in the blank pp 101 1024
3.30 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 101-102)

5. Morel asks whether they’ll be a future time when Africa will bring forth a “reaction so violent than an era of ______________________ will, for the first time in the history of Caucasian relationship with the _____________________ Continent, arise, never to be ______________________”.




3 30 fill in the blank pp 101 1025
3.30 FILL IN THE BLANK (pp. 101-102)

6. Morel places the blame on those who did nothing to prevent the exploitation of the Congo saying “the wickedness of this thing is grafted in the fatuous stupidity and inhumanity of the Powers in

allowing the extermination of the Congo races to go on _____________________, barely, if at all, reproved.”


3 31 finish the sentence p 103
  • According to the report, the Belgians had “absolute and exclusive” control and ownership of…


3 31 finish the sentence p 1031

2. The commission reported that natives are forbidden to change…


3 31 finish the sentence p 1032

3. Belgian agents because of their own personal interest in its yield often made excessive demands on the production of…


3 31 finish the sentence p 1033

4. In order to meet the demands put upon them by the Belgians in charge, native men had to travel…

3 31 finish the sentence p 1034

5. The natives who were harvesting the rubber faced…

3 31 finish the sentence p 1035

6. In all the settlements women were…


3 31 finish the sentence p 1036

7. Many black soldiers were killed out of…


3 31 finish the sentence p 1037

8. Men, women, and children who tried to escape were…


3 32 ordering pp 79 103
3.32 ORDERING (pp. 79-103)
  • 2 (1873) Beginning of a lengthy industrial depression which lasted to the early 1890s
  • 4 (1888) Kaiser Wilhelm II took over as ruler of Germany
  • 6 (1898) Britain wins battle of Omdurman
  • 3 (1878) Beginning of the Anglo-Zulu War
  • 7 (1899) Beginning of the Boer War
  • 1 (1869) Suez Canal opened
  • 5 (1894) France formed the French Indochina Union
  • 9 (1904) Beginning of the Russo –Japanese War
  • 8 (1903) Belgian Investigative Commission issues its report
true false
  • T F 1. George Orwell was well liked in Burma.
  • False—He writes that he was hated by many for the first time in his life.
true false1
  • T F 2. Orwell was once tripped on the football field and a crowd of Burmans came to help him get back up.
  • False—He was laughed at by the crowd.
true false2
  • T F 3. Orwell writes that the only people who supported him were the Buddhist priests.
  • 3. False—He writes that the Buddhist priests were the meanest of them all, as they were jeering Europeans seemingly all the time.
true false3
  • T F 4. George Orwell worked for the British Empire but secretly disapproved of imperialism.
  • 4. True
true false4
  • T F 5. Orwell claims to be keenly aware of the way in which the British Empire was weakening.
  • False—He writes that he was unaware of the loss of the British Empire’s position of dominance.
true false5
  • T F 6. Orwell writes that the British Empire is better than the younger empires that are going to supplant it.
  • TRUE
true false6
  • T F 7. Orwell claims that his encounter with the elephant helped him to realize the true nature of imperialism.
  • TRUE