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Plasma Jets. Fred Pacifico Rebecca Shipman ELEC-6750 Dr. Tzeng Spring 2004. Objectives. Questions Acronyms Background and Development Physical Properties Different Types of Plasma Jets A Plasma Jet Application. Emerging Construction Technologies, Plasma Arc Torch Technology.

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Plasma jets

Plasma Jets

Fred Pacifico

Rebecca Shipman

ELEC-6750

Dr. Tzeng

Spring 2004


Objectives
Objectives

  • Questions

  • Acronyms

  • Background and Development

  • Physical Properties

  • Different Types of Plasma Jets

  • A Plasma Jet Application

Emerging Construction Technologies, Plasma Arc Torch Technology.

http://www.new-technologies.org/ECT/Civil/plasma1.htm


Questions
Questions

  • What are two advantages of using atmospheric plasma over low pressure plasma jets?

  • Why is the binding energy increased with a plasma jet application?


Acronyms
Acronyms

  • RF-CCP (Radio Frequency Coupled Plasma )

  • ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma)

  • CMP (Microwave Capacitively Coupled Plasma) **

  • MIP (Microwave Induced Plasma)

  • PET (Polyethylene terephthalate)

** Emil Cordos, Tiberiu Frentiu, Ana-Maria Rusu, Sorin Angel, Alpar Fodor, Michaela Ponta, Analytical Characterization of a Capacitively Coupled Plasma Torch with a Central Tube Electrode, Talanta 48 827–837, 1999


Acronyms cont
Acronyms (cont.)

  • XPS (Photoelectron Spectroscopy)

http://www.tmd.ac.jp/i-mde/www/org/equipments.html


Acronyms cont1
Acronyms (cont.)

  • Topography of

    polyvinylalcohol

  • AFM (Atomic Forces Microscopy)

http://www.witec.de/pdf/mercury/mercuryflyer.pdf

(Acquired with the Mercury 100 AFM. Courtesy of G. Haugstad, Univ. of Minneapolis)

http://www.che.utoledo.edu/nadarajah/webpages/whatsafm.html


Background
Background

  • Development

    • Vortex-stabilized plasma torch

    • Water-stabilized arc

    • Gas and vapor-stabilized medium

LaserStrobe image of powder

injection into water stabilized

plasma plume.

LaserStrobe image of powder injection into gas-stabilized plasma plume.

J.A. Brogan, C.C. Berndt, W.C. Smith, R.V. Gansert, S. Raghu, S. Sampath, and H. Herman.Particle Velocity Measurements. Journal of Thermal Spray Technology (1995), http://www.controlvisioninc.com/rtitech.html


Physical principles
Physical Principles

  • Parts of the Arc

  • Cathode

  • Anode

  • Arc Column (Thermal Plasma)

M. Noeske, J. Degenhardt, S. Strudthoff, U. Lommatzsch, "Plasma jet treatment of five polymers at atmospheric pressure: surface," International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 24, (2004) 171-177


The arc
The Arc

  • Electric Discharges in Gas

  • DC and AC Arcs

  • Electrode Materials

    • Carbon (graphite)

    • Metal

  • The Stabilized Arc

T. Iwao, T. Inaba, “Plasma length on characteristics of DC argon plasma torch arc,” in Vacuum 65 (2002), pp 299-304


The cathode
The Cathode

  • Current Flow

  • Electrons’ Kinetic Energy and Collisions with Neutral Atoms

  • Positive Ions Heat Cathode Surface

  • Common Materials

B. Gross, B. Grycz, K. Miklossy, Plasma Technology. New York, NY: American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc, 1969, pp232-273.


The anode
The Anode

  • Transition of Current

  • Heated by Electrons

  • Extreme Temperatures

  • Current Density and Increased Current in the Arc

B. Gross, B. Grycz, K. Miklossy, Plasma Technology. New York, NY: American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc, 1969, pp232-273.


Arc column
Arc Column

  • Electric Field Gradient

    • Type of gas

    • Pressure

    • Electrode material

    • Cooling of the arc

    • External mechanical and magnetic forces

  • Arc Voltage

B. Gross, B. Grycz, K. Miklossy, Plasma Technology. New York, NY: American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc, 1969, pp232-273.


Plasma torches
Plasma Torches

  • ICP

  • CMP

  • MIP

  • RF-CCP

E.A. Cordos, T. Frentiu, A.M. Rusu, S.D. Angel, A. Fodor, M. Ponta, “Analytical characterisation of a capacitively coupled plasma torch with a central tube electrode”


Low pressure plasma jets
Low Pressure Plasma Jets

  • Must use small samples

  • Require Vacuum => Equipment Costs

  • Continuous Maintenance


Atmospheric plasma jets
Atmospheric Plasma Jets

  • No Vacuum Required

  • Lower Purchase and Maintenance Costs

M.C. Kim, S.H. Yang, J.H. Boo, J.G, Han, "Surface treatment of metals using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and their surface characteristics," Surface and Coatings Technology 174-175, (2003) 839-844.


Surface treatment and adhesion
Surface Treatment and Adhesion

  • M. Kim, S. Yang, J. Boo, J. Han:

    Nano-Surface Technology Team, Korea Institute of Industrial Tech.

  • Increased Adhesion

  • Surface Topographical Changes

  • Chemical Changes

    • Covalent Bond Pairs

  • Aggregated Particles

M.C. Kim, S.H. Yang, J.H. Boo, J.G, Han, "Surface treatment of metals using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and their surface characteristics," Surface and Coatings Technology 174-175, (2003) 839-844.


Topographical changes
Topographical Changes

Untreated PET Treated PET

M. Noeske, J. Degenhardt, S. Strudthoff, U. Lommatzsch, "Plasma jet treatment of five polymers at atmospheric pressure: surface modifications and the relevance for adhesion," International Journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 24, (2004) 171-177


Aggregated particles
Aggregated Particles

The aggregation of particles increased with the plasma jet application and a lower N2:O2 ratio.

M.C. Kim, S.H. Yang, J.H. Boo, J.G, Han, "Surface treatment of metals using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and their surface characteristics," Surface and Coatings Technology 174-175, (2003) 839-844.


Binding energy
Binding Energy

High-resolution XPS spectra of the C 1s binding energy region

before (…) and after (–) plasma activation.

M.C. Kim, S.H. Yang, J.H. Boo, J.G, Han, "Surface treatment of metals using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet and their surface characteristics," Surface and Coatings Technology 174-175, (2003) 839-844.


Answers to questions
Answers to Questions

  • Advantages of atmospheric plasma:

    • Larger sample capability

    • Lower cost

    • Lower temperatures

  • Increased Binding Energy with Plasma Application

    • Topographical changes

    • Creation of more covalent bond pairs


Summary
Summary

  • Questions

  • Acronyms

  • Background and Development

  • Physical Properties

  • Different Types of Plasma Jets

  • A Plasma Jet Application

  • Answers



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