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IceCube Extreme Astronomy in Antarctica

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In late 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, invented the World Wide Web. Originally conceived to meet the demand for automatic information sharing between scientists working in different universities and institutes all over the world, it has now millions of users everyday worldwide.

Welcome WCATY Scholars !

IceCube

Extreme Astronomy in Antarctica


In late 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, invented the World Wide Web. Originally conceived to meet the demand for automatic information sharing between scientists working in different universities and institutes all over the world, it has now millions of users everyday worldwide.

In late 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, invented the World Wide Web. Originally conceived to meet the demand for automatic information sharing between scientists working in different universities and institutes all over the world, it has now millions of users everyday worldwide.

In late 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, invented the World Wide Web. Originally conceived to meet the demand for automatic information sharing between scientists working in different universities and institutes all over the world, it has now millions of users everyday worldwide.

Fundamental Researchstudied without regard to practical applications

Practical science Vs. Fundamental science

Is Fundamental science impractical?


Particle Astrophysics

Particle

Astrophysics


Particle Physics

  • There are many particles

  • We are built out of only 3

T

neutrons

electrons

protons

  • Other particles, like neutrinos,

  • are created in particle

  • accelerators or in space.


Cosmic GallA Poem by John Updike (1932-2009)

* They actually do have

a very very very small mass

** Neutrinos do interact –

but it is a super rare interaction

NEUTRINOS, they are very small. They have no charge and have no mass *And do not interact at all.**The earth is just a silly ball To them, through which they simply pass, Like dustmaids down a drafty hall Or photons through a sheet of glass. They snub the most exquisite gas, Ignore the most substantial wall, Cold shoulder steel and sounding brass, Insult the stallion in his stall, And scorning barriers of class, Infiltrate you and me! Like tall and painless guillotines, they fall Down through our heads into the grass. At night, they enter at Nepal and pierce the lover and his lass From underneath the bed-you call It wonderful; I call it crass.

- Telephone Poles and Other Poems, John Updike, Knopf, 1960


Neutrinos are very

Rare particles

True or False

False: We know that neutrinos are created in the sun and in the atmosphere. Every second thousands of neutrinos go through our body.

In IceCube we look for energetic neutrinos from outer space. These are rare.


Neutrinos

Are very small

n

Have (almost) no mass

And rarely interact at all


it

must emit .

something

This must arrive

to our detector

something

it

If we want to see

And interact with our detector


Traditional astronomy uses

photons (light particles) as messengers

A Telescope

(visible light, or X-ray or gamma-ray)


True or False

Sometimes 1” of matter is enough

to stop a photon

True: Cover your eyes


?

I need a different messenger

Traditional astronomy uses

photons (light particles) as messengers

Space is not empty.

A Telescope

(visible light, or X-ray or gamma-ray)


True or False

To stop a neutrino

we need 10 miles of matter

False: We will need much more matter to stop a neutrino


To make sure we stop every neutrino we would need 10 light years of lead.

This is 1 million

times the distance

to the Sun full with

heavy dense material


Traditional astronomy uses

photons (light particles) as messengers

In IceCube we use Neutrinos to do astronomy

Neutrino detector


Hey, Wait a minute:

If those “neutrinos” rarely interact,

they will also “rarely” interact with our detector


A

VERY

BIG

DETECTOR


How to detect a neutrino

If a neutrino interacts in our detector, it produces a super energetic charged particle that moves super fast

What happens when things move fast??

Cherenkov effect - “Optic” Boom

(when a charged particle passes through matter at a speed greater than the speed of light in matter)

Sonic Boom

(Shock caused by moving faster than the speed of sound)


Where to put it?

Requirements from a neutrino detector

nrarely interact .

large detectors

Light measurement

 Dark

 Transparent

Cost

Cheap material

A lot of transparent stuff ! !


Water

Ice


  • IceCube will be made of 80 strings deployed in holes 1.5 miles deep (!)

  • The bottom 0.6 miles of each string is instrumented with 60 super sensitive detectors.

  • “eyes”

  • A cubic kilometer array of light detectors will look for this weak light

1.5 mile

0.6 mile


  • IceCube will be made of 80 strings deployed in holes 1.5 miles deep (!)

  • The bottom 0.6 miles of each string is instrumented with 60 super sensitive detectors.

  • “eyes”

  • A cubic kilometer array of light detectors will look for this weak light

1.5 mile

0.6 mile


The eye in the iceDOMDigital Optical Module


IceCube – where are we?

IceCube

South Pole

Dome

road to work

Ski-Runway (road to home)

New Station


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