The universe
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The universe. Done by: T areq Dandachi. How big. The universe. Everything that exists is part of the universe. The UNIVERSE is a very very huge place. In fact its at least 900 billion trillion kilometers. Although most scientists think it will never end. Out of. This world.

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The universe

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The universe

Done by: Tareq Dandachi

How big

The universe

Everything that exists is part of the universe. The UNIVERSE is a very very huge place. In fact its at least 900 billion trillion kilometers.

Although most scientists think it will never end.

Out of

This world

The temperature is -270 degrees celcius in most parts of the universe.

on the darkest clearest night you can only see 1\100,000,000,000,000,000 of the stars in the universe

Our Star The Sun

The cycle our sun follows

  • The sun has all started as a nebula shrinking under its own gravity

  • Protostar temperature the stage at which nuclear reactions take in the star

  • Now the sun is needed for daily life

  • Sun gets hotter 10% and gets bigger swallowing mercury Venus and maybe earth.

  • Suns core collapses

  • Planetary nebula a stage in which sun throws a cloud of gas

  • White dwarf cools down


Before 5 billion years. Nebula shrinks under own gravity and stars begin to form

Protostartemperature rises nuclear reactions start in stabilize star

Now sun provides light for earth

Sun is no longer visible

White dwarf nebula cools and fades

after 5 billion years suns core collapses

Planetary nebula Sun throws of a cloud of gas

Sun gets hotter 10% every billion year and swallows mercury Venus and maybe earth

Looking upstars

looking up


How many stars could you see at night a million a billion actually on the darkest night you can see less than 3000 are visible. There is at least 70,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 stars.

Its said to be more than all the grains of sand on earth. So its all what we see

Is only a tiny fraction.

Some stars you see are the size of our sun some are much bigger. Many are double each spinning around the other. Many stars also have planets too.

Stars usually last for billions of years. But the more

Massive they are the brighter they burn

And the shorter they live.

The blue stars are young or newly formed

The red ones are supergiant

Did You Know?

The largest known star called VY canismajoris is so huge that it can contain 100 billion objects the size of SUN


the star with the longest name is Shurnarkabtishashutu which means under the southern horn of the bull

The light from most stars you can see takes decades to get to earth – which means you are seeing them as they where before you were born.

If the earth was the size of a marble the nearest star will be 30,000 kilometers away.

Seeing double

About half of the stars in the universe

exist in pairs. They are called

binary stars. And both

orbit the same


Star death

Black holes and supernovas

When the suns runs out of fuel it will swell up and melt up its surface – but there`s no rush leaving home It won`t happen till the year 5,000,000,000. stars more than five times massive than sun explode as supernovas, shining more brightly than a whole galaxy of stars.

Supernovas leave behind them shrunken remains and sometimes those remains are black holes. Why black? Because they absorb everything even light – nothing can escape them. So don`t worry about escaping them anyway you`ll be torn apart before you reach the hole itself.

Black holes and supernovas

This jet is lots of high energy particles being blasted away by the black hole

  • The black hole at the center of our galaxy is called the Centaurus A has a billion times more mass than sun.

  • Centaurus A is really two galaxies in collusion – and its full of new forming stars as a result. Trillions tons of material are sucked by this black hole from both galaxies.

    • Scientists can study this black hole easier than the others because it’s the closest to the earth. Centaurus A takes about 14,000,000 light years to reach us.

Light year a word you have heard a lot but you may haven`t known the meaning it’s a measurement in space astronauts work with one light year is 10,000,000,000,000km.


A supernova is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. With the plural supernovae or supernovas. Supernovae are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months. During this short interval a supernova can radiate as much energy as the Sun is expected to emit over its entire life span. The explosion expels much or all of a star's materialat a velocity of up to 30,000 km/s (10% of the speed of light), driving a shock wave into the surrounding interstellar medium. This shock wave sweeps up an expanding shell of gas and dust called a supernova remnant.

Getting together

Galaxies and the big bang


Stars are gathered together throughout the universe in groups called GALAXIES. Our own is called the milky way galaxy and its made of about 300bilion stars so all what we see is 0.000001 of the whole thing.


Big bang

Last century, astronomers noticed something very odd – most other galaxies are hurtling away from each other too. They realised that the whole universe is getting bigger every second,

And that everything in the universe must have been crunched up together

Long ago. Very veryvery long ago (13.7 billion years ago.

To be precise) when it all began as a

Sudden explosion – the

Big Bang.

Astronomers see back to almost the beginning of time when they look at quasars. Quasars are very bright objects (caused by various things falling into supermassive black holes) that can be seen across vast distances, their light takes nearly as long as the age of the universe.

The universe is more than the oldest person in a 100,000,000 times ( to be precise 13.7 billion years)

For hundred and thousands of years after it formed the universe was black

Big bang facts

The most distant objects in the universe are moving from us at over 280,000km/second

The big bang wasn`t an explosion –space was only created after it happened , so there wasn`t anywhere for it to explode into!

Most of the atoms in you are hydrogen which formed very soon after the big bang. So most of you is as old as the universe.



Comets and Asteroids

Comets are like giant dirty snow balls. Usually comets are happy orbiting far out on the edge of the solar system about 7,000,000,000,000 away from earth but sometimes they swoop in towards the sun growing tails of gas and dust as they warm up.

If you`ve ever seen a comet you weren`t scared after all it was a whitish streak in the sky but don`t be fooled comets could kill. In fact a comet (or maybe an asteroid0 hit earth and killed the dianasoars by freezing earth. It could happen to us also.

If you want to see comet Halley it passes every 75.3 years.

Comet Hyakutake had a tail of 550,000,000 km long nearly 4 times longer than the distance from earth to sun

The center of a comet is called the nucleus.

An asteroid is a small rock in orbit mostly found between Mars and Jupiter these were the building blocks of a planet that failed to form there


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