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** Images and lecture material were not entirely created by J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**. Rhizopus sp. on peach. Rhizopus sp. on sunflower. Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios. TRUE FUNGI. ASCOMYCETES - called the sac fungi because

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Rhizopus sp on peach

** Images and lecture material were not entirely created by J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**


Rhizopus sp on peach

Rhizopus sp. on peach

Rhizopus sp. on sunflower


Rhizopus sp on peach

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


True fungi

TRUE FUNGI

ASCOMYCETES - called the sac fungi because

sexual spores (ascospores) are produced in

a sac (ascus).

This is the largest group of fungi (35k +)

with the most economically important members.


Ascomycetes

ASCOMYCETES

Characteristics :

1. Most are facultative parasites - they can survive in soil or plant debris, often for several years. A few are obligate parasites.

2. They produce a cellular hyphae (i.e., with distinct cell cross walls).

3. They produce a stroma - a mass of hyphae in which fruiting bodies are produced.

4. Sexual spores = ascospores. They are produced in groups of 8, which are enclosed in a single ascus (asci).

5. Ascospores in asci are produced in an ascocarp.

There are several basic types of ascocarps, but each fungus produces only one type:


Rhizopus sp on peach

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


Ascocarps

Ascocarps

a. Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface, i.e., not in an ascocarp.

Ex: Taphrina deformans - peach leaf curl

Ex: Saccharomyces spp. - the yeasts


Naked asci

Naked - asci


Ascocarps1

Ascocarps

a. Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface, i.e., not in an ascocarp.

b. Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

Ex: Sphaerotheca pannosa - powdery mildew of rose

Ex: Erysiphe graminis - powdery mildew of wheat

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


Cleistothecia

Cleistothecia

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection


Ascocarps2

Ascocarps

a. Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface, i.e., not in an ascocarp.

b. Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

c. Perithecia - asci are produced in a nearly-completely closed structure with a single opening and a distinct wall. Perithecia can be round or some version of flask-shaped.

Ex: Claviceps purpurea - ergot of grains

Ex: Ophiostoma ulmi - Dutch elm disease

Ex: Cryphonectria parasitica - chestnut blight

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


Perithecia

Perithecia

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection


Ascocarps3

Ascocarps

a. Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface, i.e., not in an ascocarp.

b. Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

c. Perithecia - asci are produced in a nearly-completely closed structure with a single opening and a distinct wall. Perithecia can be round or some version of flask-shaped.

d. Apothecia - asci are produced in an open cup- or saucer-shaped structure.

Ex: Monilina fructicola– brown rot of stone fruits

Ex: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - white mold of bean

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


Apothecia

Apothecia

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection


Ascocarps4

Ascocarps

  • Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface

  • Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

  • Perithecia - asci are produced in a nearly-completely closed structure with a single opening. Perithecia can be round or some version of flask-shaped.

  • Apothecia - asci are produced in an open cup- or saucer-shaped structure.

  • Pseudothecia (aka ascostroma) - asci are produced in cavities without a distinct wall within a stroma of mycelium within host tissues.

    Ex: Venturia inaequalis - apple scab

    Ex: Guignardia bidwellii - black rot of grape

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


Pseudothecia

Pseudothecia

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection


Ascocarps5

Ascocarps

  • Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface

  • Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

  • Perithecia - asci are produced in a nearly-completely closed structure with a distinct wall with a single opening. Perithecia can be round or some version of flask-shaped.

  • Apothecia - asci are produced in an open cup- or saucer-shaped structure.

  • Pseudothecia (aka ascostroma) - asci are produced in cavities without a distinct wall within a stroma of mycelium produced within host tissues.


Teleomorph vs anamorph

The teleomorph (perfect stage) is the sexual stage

The anamorph(imperfect stage) is the asexual stage

Teleomorph vs Anamorph

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection

Nectria - perithecia

Fusarium - conidia


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