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** Images and lecture material were not entirely created by J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**. Rhizopus sp. on peach. Rhizopus sp. on sunflower. Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios. TRUE FUNGI. ASCOMYCETES - called the sac fungi because

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** Images and lecture material were not entirely created by J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**


Rhizopus J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.** sp. on peach

Rhizopus sp. on sunflower


Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**


True fungi
TRUE FUNGI J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

ASCOMYCETES - called the sac fungi because

sexual spores (ascospores) are produced in

a sac (ascus).

This is the largest group of fungi (35k +)

with the most economically important members.


Ascomycetes
ASCOMYCETES J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

Characteristics :

1. Most are facultative parasites - they can survive in soil or plant debris, often for several years. A few are obligate parasites.

2. They produce a cellular hyphae (i.e., with distinct cell cross walls).

3. They produce a stroma - a mass of hyphae in which fruiting bodies are produced.

4. Sexual spores = ascospores. They are produced in groups of 8, which are enclosed in a single ascus (asci).

5. Ascospores in asci are produced in an ascocarp.

There are several basic types of ascocarps, but each fungus produces only one type:


Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**


Ascocarps
Ascocarps J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

a. Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface, i.e., not in an ascocarp.

Ex: Taphrina deformans - peach leaf curl

Ex: Saccharomyces spp. - the yeasts


Naked asci
Naked - asci J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**


Ascocarps1
Ascocarps J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

a. Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface, i.e., not in an ascocarp.

b. Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

Ex: Sphaerotheca pannosa - powdery mildew of rose

Ex: Erysiphe graminis - powdery mildew of wheat

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


Cleistothecia
Cleistothecia J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection


Ascocarps2
Ascocarps J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

a. Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface, i.e., not in an ascocarp.

b. Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

c. Perithecia - asci are produced in a nearly-completely closed structure with a single opening and a distinct wall. Perithecia can be round or some version of flask-shaped.

Ex: Claviceps purpurea - ergot of grains

Ex: Ophiostoma ulmi - Dutch elm disease

Ex: Cryphonectria parasitica - chestnut blight

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


Perithecia
Perithecia J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection


Ascocarps3
Ascocarps J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

a. Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface, i.e., not in an ascocarp.

b. Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

c. Perithecia - asci are produced in a nearly-completely closed structure with a single opening and a distinct wall. Perithecia can be round or some version of flask-shaped.

d. Apothecia - asci are produced in an open cup- or saucer-shaped structure.

Ex: Monilina fructicola– brown rot of stone fruits

Ex: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - white mold of bean

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


Apothecia
Apothecia J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection


Ascocarps4
Ascocarps J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

  • Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface

  • Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

  • Perithecia - asci are produced in a nearly-completely closed structure with a single opening. Perithecia can be round or some version of flask-shaped.

  • Apothecia - asci are produced in an open cup- or saucer-shaped structure.

  • Pseudothecia (aka ascostroma) - asci are produced in cavities without a distinct wall within a stroma of mycelium within host tissues.

    Ex: Venturia inaequalis - apple scab

    Ex: Guignardia bidwellii - black rot of grape

Plant Pathology – G.N. Agrios


Pseudothecia
Pseudothecia J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection


Ascocarps5
Ascocarps J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**

  • Naked - asci are produced exposed on a plant surface

  • Cleistothecia - asci are produced in a completely closed spherical structure.

  • Perithecia - asci are produced in a nearly-completely closed structure with a distinct wall with a single opening. Perithecia can be round or some version of flask-shaped.

  • Apothecia - asci are produced in an open cup- or saucer-shaped structure.

  • Pseudothecia (aka ascostroma) - asci are produced in cavities without a distinct wall within a stroma of mycelium produced within host tissues.


Teleomorph vs anamorph

The J. Bond. Some of this material was created by others.**teleomorph (perfect stage) is the sexual stage

The anamorph(imperfect stage) is the asexual stage

Teleomorph vs Anamorph

APS Slide Collection

APS Slide Collection

Nectria - perithecia

Fusarium - conidia


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