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Warm Up. The genetic code of a DNA molecule is determined by a specific sequence of A. ATP molecules C. chemical bonds B. sugar molecules D. nitrogenous bases. Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression. Why does a cell need proteins to function properly?. Time to make the

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Presentation Transcript
warm up
Warm Up

The genetic code of a DNA molecule is determined by a specific sequence of

A. ATP molecules C. chemical bonds

B. sugar molecules D. nitrogenous bases

slide7
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA is double stranded.

Contains sugar deoxyribose.

DNA contains bases adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine.

DNA never leaves the nucleus.

RNA: ribonucleic acid

RNA is single stranded.

Contains sugar ribose.

RNA contains bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and URACIL.

RNA can leave the nucleus.

Let’s Review DNA & RNA

remember there are three types of rna
Remember there are three types of RNA
  • mRNA: messenger RNA

DNA

mRNA

  • tRNA: transfer RNA.

Transcription

Amino acid

tRNA

towing

  • rRNA: ribosomal RNA

Translation

overall process of protein synthesis
Overall process of protein synthesis

transcription

translation

mRNA

DNA

Protein

summary of protein synthesis
Summary of Protein Synthesis
  • DNA  mRNA  tRNA  protein
  • The process of going from DNA to mRNA is transcription.
  • The process of going from mRNA to protein is translation.
let s explore this in a little more detail

Let’s explore this in a little more detail...

First, let’s see how the message in DNA gets to the ribosomes…

dna s tragedy
DNA’s tragedy

If I could only

get out there…

I’d show them

a thing or two!

  • DNA contains volumes of information about making protein.
  • Unfortunately, DNA is too huge to leave the nucleus.

ribosomes

nucleus

how does the cell solve this problem transcription
How does the cell solve this problem….transcription

How do I tell

those guys what

I want them

to do?

  • That’s where mRNA comes in.
  • mRNA helps get DNA’s message out to the ribosomes...

I can help!

first dna unzips itself

ATGACGATT

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...
  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.
first dna unzips itself1

ATGACGATT

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...
  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.
first dna unzips itself2

ATGACGATT

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...
  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.
first dna unzips itself3

ATGACGATT

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...
  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.
first dna unzips itself4

ATGACGATT

TACTGCTAA

First, DNA unzips itself...
  • DNA unzips itself, exposing free nitrogen bases.
iv transcription
IV. Transcription
  • The process of going DNA to mRNA
iv transcription1
IV. Transcription

b. The steps of transcription:

1. First DNA unzips itself along the

segment of code needed for a certain

protein.

2. mRNA is made by forming

complementary bases on the

unzipped portion of DNA.

iv transcription2
IV. Transcription

b. The steps of transcription:

3. DNA’s code is copied into groups of

3 bases at a time called a codon.

4. Each codon codes for 1 amino acid.

5. Once the mRNA strand is

transcribed, it can leave the nucleus

to find a ribosome to carry out the

next step.

next mrna is made

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion
next mrna is made1

U

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion
next mrna is made2

U

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion
next mrna is made3

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UA

next mrna is made4

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UA

next mrna is made5

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UAC

next mrna is made6

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UAC

next mrna is made7

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACU

next mrna is made8

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACU

next mrna is made9

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUG

next mrna is made10

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUG

next mrna is made11

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGC

next mrna is made12

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGC

next mrna is made13

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGCU

next mrna is made14

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGCU

next mrna is made15

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGCUA

next mrna is made16

ATGACGATT

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complimentary fashion

UACUGCUA

next mrna is made17

ATGACGATT

UACUGCUAA

Next, mRNA is made...
  • mRNA is made from the DNA template
  • mRNA matches with free DNA nitrogen bases in a complementary fashion
some additional notes about making mrna
Some additional notes about making mRNA…
  • DNA contains many non-coding regions, also known as “junk DNA”
  • RNA is not made from the junk DNA
mrna leaves the nucleus

UACUGCUAA

mRNA leaves the nucleus...

I hope he can

tell them what

to do!

  • DNA’s code is copied to mRNA in three letter groups called codons.
  • After mRNA is made from the DNA template, it is ready to leave the nucleus.
the next step translation

UACUGCUAA

The next step...Translation

mRNA meets the Ribosomes!

(No, it’s not a new sitcom on FOX…)

mrna tries to talk to the ribosomes

I have a message

for you! It’s

from DNA!

UACUGCUAA

It’s always

something!

mRNA tries to talk to the ribosomes…
  • mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm, where the ribosomes are located.

What does

he want now?

Once there, mRNA

meets up with the

ribosomes

mrna tries to talk to the ribosomes but is unsuccessful

Why don’t they

get it???

@%$!!

UACUGCUAA

We need a

translator!

mRNA tries to talk to the ribosomes…but is unsuccessful.

Why can’t we tell

what he’s saying?

  • However, the ribosomes cannot understand the message mRNA is carrying.
trna saves the day

Tyrosine

UACUGCUAA

AUG

Where is that

translator?

tRNA Saves the Day!

We won’t work until

we know what to do!

Looks like trouble

for this cell…

I’d better help!

The boss will NOT

be happy about

this...

Now the cell can make a protein!

trna transfer rna
tRNA: Transfer RNA
  • Chemically, tRNA is clover-leaf shaped.
  • At one end, it carries an amino acid (like a tow truck).
  • At the other end, it has a three letter code known as an anticodon.

Tyrosine

AUG

anticodon what s that

UACUGCUAA

Anticodon? What’s that?

Tyrosine

  • This anticodon is the complement to the codons contained within mRNA.
  • Can you find the mRNA complement to the anticodon on tRNA?

AUG

some notes about amino acids
Some notes about Amino Acids
  • There are 20 known amino acids present in living things.
  • How is it possible to get a group of four letters to code for 20 things?
  • Put them into groups of three…
    • 43 = 64 codes

Number of members in a group of nitrogen bases

Number of nitrogen bases

what s a codon anyway
What’s a codon, anyway?
  • Here is what a codon looks like. It is a sequence of 3 bases.
  • How we determine what amino acid each codon codes for must be read off of a codon chart.
  • This is also known as the genetic code.
codon chart

U

C

A

G

U

Phenylalanine

Phenylalanine

Leucine

Leucine

Serine

Serine

Serine

Serine

Tyrosine

Tyrosine

Stop

Stop

Cysteine

Cysteine

Stop

Tryptophan

U

C

A

G

Second Base

C

Leucine

Leucine

Leucine

Leucine

Proline

Proline

Proline

Proline

Histidine

Histidine

Glutamine

Glutamine

Arginine

Arginine

Arginine

Arginine

UCAG

First

Base

Third

Base

A

Isoleucine

Isoleucine

Isoleucine

Methionine

Threonine

Threonine

Threonine

Threonine

Asparagine

Asparagine

Lysine

Lysine

Serine

Serine

Arginine

Arginine

UCAG

G

Valine

Valine

Valine

Valine

Alanine

Alanine

Alanine

Alanine

Aspartic Acid

Aspartic Acid

Glutamic Acid

Glutamic Acid

Glycine

Glycine

Glycine

Glycine

UCAG

Codon chart
reading a codon chart
Reading a Codon Chart
  • It is possible for some amino acids to have more than one codon.
  • There are three stop codons…they are UAA, UGA and UAG.
  • There is also one START codon…AUG.
how a translator works

Methionine

AUGUGCUAA

UAC

How a Translator works…
  • First, the anticodons on tRNA meet up with the mRNA start codon (AUG) at the ribosome.
  • Next, another tRNA meets up with it’s corresponding mRNA.
  • Each tRNA carries an amino acid.
how a translator works1

Methionine

AUGUGCUAA

UAC

How a Translator works…
  • Once two amino acids are made, a bond forms between them.
  • This process continues until a stop codon on mRNA is reached.
here s the process animated

UACUGCUAA

Here’s the process…animated!

Note: this is a really basic representation of this process!

here s the process animated9

UACUGCUAA

AUU

isoleucine

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine

here s the process animated10

UACUGCUAA

AUU

isoleucine

Here’s the process…animated!

tyrosine

threonine

animation of translation

Animation of translation

Click to automatically start animation.

slide72

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

Nucleus

slide73

This is a ribosome.

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide74

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide75

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide76

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide77

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide78

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide79

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide80

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide81

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide82

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide83

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide84

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide85

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide86

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide87

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide88

Arg

Met

U

U

C

C

U

U

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide89

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide90

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide91

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide92

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide93

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide94

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide95

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide96

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide97

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide98

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide99

Gly

Arg

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide100

Gly

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide101

Gly

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide102

Gly

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide103

Gly

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide104

Gly

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide105

Gly

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide106

Gly

Met

Arg

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide107

Arg

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide108

Arg

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide109

Arg

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide110

Arg

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide111

Arg

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide112

Arg

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide113

Arg

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide114

Arg

Lys

Gly

Met

U

C

U

G

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide115

Gly

Met

Lys

Arg

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide116

Gly

Met

Lys

Arg

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide117

Gly

Met

Lys

Arg

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide118

Gly

Met

Lys

Arg

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide119

Lys

Met

Arg

Gly

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide120

Lys

Met

Arg

Gly

G

G

G

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide121

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

Single Messenger RNA Strand

slide122

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

slide123

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

slide124

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide125

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide126

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide127

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide128

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide129

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide130

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide131

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide132

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide133

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide134

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide135

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide136

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide137

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

A

A

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

tRNA

slide138

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

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C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

slide139

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

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U

G

G

G

A

A

A

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C

C

C

A

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U

U

U

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tRNA

slide140

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

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U

G

G

G

A

A

A

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C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

slide141

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

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C

C

C

A

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U

U

U

U

tRNA

slide142

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

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C

C

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U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

slide143

Lys

Gly

Arg

Met

Stop

U

C

U

G

G

G

A

A

A

C

C

C

C

A

U

U

U

U

U

tRNA

how does it know when to quit

STOP

How Does it Know When to Quit?
  • This process continues until a stop or a termination codon (found on mRNA) is reached.
  • There are three stop codons: UGA, UAA and UAG.
regulation of transcription and translation
Regulation of Transcription and Translation
  • Think about your house, do you keep all the lights on ALL the time in every room??
  • Gene expression is a regulated process where genes can be turned on and off as needed due to environmental factors.
in summary
In summary…
  • DNA contains the information needed to make proteins.
  • However, DNA is too large to leave the nucleus.
  • RNA acts as a set of working instructions for ribosomes to make proteins.
  • This process is also known as gene expression.
  • Gene expression is a regulated process.
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