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21 st CENTURY FLORAS New technologies to speed the process. Arthur D. Chapman [email protected] Problems in beginning a new Flora. Problems in beginning a new Flora. Access to available names Access to publications Access to adequate collections Access to ancillary information

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21 st century floras new technologies to speed the process
21st CENTURY FLORASNew technologies to speed the process

Arthur D. Chapman

[email protected]


Problems in beginning a new flora

Problems in beginning a new Flora

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Access to available names

  • Access to publications

  • Access to adequate collections

  • Access to ancillary information

  • Speed of the taxonomic process

  • Re-inventing the wheel

  • Size of the task

    With thanks to George Shepherd


250 years of Endeavour

where are we now?

where are we going?


Using emerging technologies

Using emerging technologies

Using emerging technologies

  • What emerging technologies?

  • How are they being used?

  • How can these be used to solve the problems of beginning a new Flora


Changing technology

Changing Technologies

Changing Technology

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Digital Libraries

  • Presentation Tools


Internet

The Internet

Internet

  • New high-speed parallel networks

    • From gopher to grid

  • Distributed systems

    • From Z39.50 to XML, SOAP

  • Interactive Mapping

    • From Imap to ArcIMS, Mapserver

From http://ces.asu.edu/bdi/Subjects/Xanthoria/


Changing technology1

Changing Technologies

Changing Technology

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Digital Libraries

  • Presentation Tools


Computer storage

Computer Storage

Computer Storage

20 Gb USB/Firewire

256 Mb USB

160 Gb USB/Firewire

1 Gb smartcard


Changing technology2

Changing Technologies

Changing Technology

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Digital Libraries

  • Presentation Tools


Chip development

Chip Development

Chip Development

P4

P4

P3

P2

8008

286

486

P1

4004

8086

386


Changing technology3

Changing Technologies

Changing Technology

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Digital Libraries

  • Presentation Tools


Geocoding

GPS

  • Manual coding

  • Automated georeferencing

  • GPS


Australian bird atlas

Atlas of Australian Birds

Australian Bird Atlas

From Atlas Newsletter No. 9, 2002


Changing technologies
Changing Technologies

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Digital Libraries

  • Presentation Tools


Changing technologies1
Changing Technologies

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Digital Libraries

  • Presentation Tools


Type collections
Type collections

INBIO Costa Rica


Type collections1
Type Collections

US National Herbarium


Type collections2
Type Collections

University of Florida





Changing technologies2
Changing Technologies

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Digital Libraries

  • Presentation Tools


Digital imagery

Digital Imagery

Digital Imagery


Changing technology4
Changing Technology

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Digital Libraries

  • Presentation Tools



Changing technology5
Changing Technology

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Digital Libraries

  • Presentation Tools


Digital libraries

Digital Libraries

Digital Libraries

With thanks to Barbara Thiers, NYBG


Changing technologies3
Changing Technologies

  • Internet

  • Computing

    • Storage

    • Processing speeds

  • GPS

  • Analysis Tools

  • Imagery

    • Scanners

    • Digital Photography

    • Digital Video

  • Presentation Tools


Flora of australia

Flora of Australia

Flora of Australia


Flora of australia1

Flora of Australia

Flora of Australia


Using emereging technologies

Using emerging technologies

Using emereging technologies

  • Access to available names


Using emereging technologies1

Using emerging technologies

Using emereging technologies

  • Access to available names

    • Catalogue of names (authority files)

    • Distributed access


Problems in beginning a new flora1

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Access to publications


Problems in beginning a new flora2

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Access to publications

    • Digital libraries

    • Scanning


Problems in beginning a new flora3

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Access to adequate collections


Problems in beginning a new flora4

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Access to adequate collections

    • Virtual Herbaria

    • DiGIR


Problems in beginning a new flora5

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Access to ancillary information


Problems in beginning a new flora6

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Access to ancillary information

    • Flora Braziliensis revisited

    • Digital libraries


Problems in beginning a new flora7

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Speed of the taxonomic process


Problems in beginning a new flora8

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Speed of the taxonomic process

    • Databases

    • Protologues

    • Types

    • Electronic publications

      • Names, check lists, floras, etc.

    • Working smarter

    • Sharing data, pooling descriptions


Problems in beginning a new flora9

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Re-inventing the wheel

    • Other floras and electronic floras

      • Flora of Australia/XML

    • Distributed systems

    • Species Plantarum?

    • Utilising the resources


Problems in beginning a new flora10

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Size of the task


Problems in beginning a new flora11

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora

  • Size of the task

    • What type of Flora?

    • Who wants a Flora anyway?

    • Electronic Flora

    • Check lists, guide books

    • What are the priorities

    • Australian experience

    • Orchids – are they really plants?

    • 250 years of taxonomic endeavour


Working Smarter

If Linnaeus was starting today

would he do things the same way?


The future

Working Smarter

The future –

  • Linking distributed information

    • A distributed flora?

  • Searching interactively

  • ‘on demand’ Floras

  • Up-to-date information

  • Quicker, more efficient taxonomy


Working smarter

Working Smarter

Working Smarter

Taxonomic process

  • Searching for names

  • Searching for original descriptions

  • Searching for recent revisions

  • Searching for specimens/types

  • Creating a character set

  • Writing descriptions

  • Publishing


How can we improve efficiency

Working Smarter

How can we improve efficiency

Writing Floras

  • Gathering information from revisions

  • Re-keying information

  • Re-checking specimens

  • Geo-referencing

  • Checking other treatises, floras, etc.

  • Writing up

  • Mapping

  • Illustrating

  • Publishing

  • Data validation tools



A fantasy
A fantasy

  • Person in field with a GPS and satellite link

  • Upload location

  • Download key and descriptions

  • Type in vegetation type – use interactive keys

  • Upload photograph or video

  • Get identification – or notification of possible new species

  • New description, photograph, etc. on spot added to database – perhaps with code rather than formal name.

  • Information is immediately to other researchers and taxonomists.



Arthur D. Chapman

[email protected]


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