21 st century floras new technologies to speed the process
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21 st CENTURY FLORAS New technologies to speed the process. Arthur D. Chapman [email protected] Problems in beginning a new Flora. Problems in beginning a new Flora. Access to available names Access to publications Access to adequate collections Access to ancillary information

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problems in beginning a new flora

Problems in beginning a new Flora

Problems in beginning a new Flora
  • Access to available names
  • Access to publications
  • Access to adequate collections
  • Access to ancillary information
  • Speed of the taxonomic process
  • Re-inventing the wheel
  • Size of the task

With thanks to George Shepherd

slide3

250 years of Endeavour

where are we now?

where are we going?

using emerging technologies

Using emerging technologies

Using emerging technologies
  • What emerging technologies?
  • How are they being used?
  • How can these be used to solve the problems of beginning a new Flora
changing technology

Changing Technologies

Changing Technology
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Digital Libraries
  • Presentation Tools
internet

The Internet

Internet
  • New high-speed parallel networks
    • From gopher to grid
  • Distributed systems
    • From Z39.50 to XML, SOAP
  • Interactive Mapping
    • From Imap to ArcIMS, Mapserver

From http://ces.asu.edu/bdi/Subjects/Xanthoria/

changing technology1

Changing Technologies

Changing Technology
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Digital Libraries
  • Presentation Tools
computer storage

Computer Storage

Computer Storage

20 Gb USB/Firewire

256 Mb USB

160 Gb USB/Firewire

1 Gb smartcard

changing technology2

Changing Technologies

Changing Technology
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Digital Libraries
  • Presentation Tools
chip development

Chip Development

Chip Development

P4

P4

P3

P2

8008

286

486

P1

4004

8086

386

changing technology3

Changing Technologies

Changing Technology
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Digital Libraries
  • Presentation Tools
slide12

Geocoding

GPS
  • Manual coding
  • Automated georeferencing
  • GPS
australian bird atlas

Atlas of Australian Birds

Australian Bird Atlas

From Atlas Newsletter No. 9, 2002

changing technologies
Changing Technologies
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Digital Libraries
  • Presentation Tools
changing technologies1
Changing Technologies
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Digital Libraries
  • Presentation Tools
type collections
Type collections

INBIO Costa Rica

type collections1
Type Collections

US National Herbarium

type collections2
Type Collections

University of Florida

changing technologies2
Changing Technologies
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Digital Libraries
  • Presentation Tools
changing technology4
Changing Technology
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Digital Libraries
  • Presentation Tools
changing technology5
Changing Technology
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Digital Libraries
  • Presentation Tools
digital libraries

Digital Libraries

Digital Libraries

With thanks to Barbara Thiers, NYBG

changing technologies3
Changing Technologies
  • Internet
  • Computing
    • Storage
    • Processing speeds
  • GPS
  • Analysis Tools
  • Imagery
    • Scanners
    • Digital Photography
    • Digital Video
  • Presentation Tools
using emereging technologies1

Using emerging technologies

Using emereging technologies
  • Access to available names
    • Catalogue of names (authority files)
    • Distributed access
problems in beginning a new flora2

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora
  • Access to publications
    • Digital libraries
    • Scanning
problems in beginning a new flora4

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora
  • Access to adequate collections
    • Virtual Herbaria
    • DiGIR
problems in beginning a new flora6

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora
  • Access to ancillary information
    • Flora Braziliensis revisited
    • Digital libraries
problems in beginning a new flora8

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora
  • Speed of the taxonomic process
    • Databases
    • Protologues
    • Types
    • Electronic publications
      • Names, check lists, floras, etc.
    • Working smarter
    • Sharing data, pooling descriptions
problems in beginning a new flora9

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora
  • Re-inventing the wheel
    • Other floras and electronic floras
      • Flora of Australia/XML
    • Distributed systems
    • Species Plantarum?
    • Utilising the resources
problems in beginning a new flora11

Using emerging technologies

Problems in beginning a new Flora
  • Size of the task
    • What type of Flora?
    • Who wants a Flora anyway?
    • Electronic Flora
    • Check lists, guide books
    • What are the priorities
    • Australian experience
    • Orchids – are they really plants?
    • 250 years of taxonomic endeavour
slide44

Working Smarter

If Linnaeus was starting today

would he do things the same way?

the future

Working Smarter

The future –
  • Linking distributed information
    • A distributed flora?
  • Searching interactively
  • ‘on demand’ Floras
  • Up-to-date information
  • Quicker, more efficient taxonomy
working smarter

Working Smarter

Working Smarter

Taxonomic process

  • Searching for names
  • Searching for original descriptions
  • Searching for recent revisions
  • Searching for specimens/types
  • Creating a character set
  • Writing descriptions
  • Publishing
how can we improve efficiency

Working Smarter

How can we improve efficiency

Writing Floras

  • Gathering information from revisions
  • Re-keying information
  • Re-checking specimens
  • Geo-referencing
  • Checking other treatises, floras, etc.
  • Writing up
  • Mapping
  • Illustrating
  • Publishing
  • Data validation tools
a fantasy
A fantasy
  • Person in field with a GPS and satellite link
  • Upload location
  • Download key and descriptions
  • Type in vegetation type – use interactive keys
  • Upload photograph or video
  • Get identification – or notification of possible new species
  • New description, photograph, etc. on spot added to database – perhaps with code rather than formal name.
  • Information is immediately to other researchers and taxonomists.
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