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REGULATIONS ON AFLATOXIN IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND Current STATUS OF ANIMAL FEED REGULATION IN Nigeria Joseph Nyager (DVM, MSc) DIRECTOR/ CVO FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCK FEDERAL MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT ABUJA -NIGERIA. Outline. Introduction

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REGULATIONS ON AFLATOXIN IN LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND Current STATUS OF ANIMAL FEED REGULATION IN Nigeria Joseph Nyager (DVM, MSc)DIRECTOR/CVO FEDERAL DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCKFEDERAL MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE & RURAL DEVELOPMENT ABUJA -NIGERIA

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Major Aflatoxin contaminated feed ingredients
  • Major risk factors for Nigeria
  • Aflatoxins in fish, pig and poultry
  • Previous efforts made on regulation of Aflatoxin in livestock feeds
  • Status of animal feed regulation in Nigeria
  • Conclusion
introduction
Introduction
  • Nigeria in West Africa.
  • About 160 million people.
  • 36 states and 773 LGAs.

Africa

Nigeria

animal resources of nigeria
Animal Resources of Nigeria
  • Nigeria has the largest animal resources in the West African region.
    • Cattle 17 million
    • Sheep 33 million
    • Goats 52 million
    • Poultry 166 million
    • Pigs 6.6 million
    • Camels and Donkey 0.7 million

Source: FAOSTAT, 2009

  • Agriculture contributes 44% to National GDP - Livestock contributes 25% of the Agricultural GDP
aflatoxins
Aflatoxins
  • Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that are produced by different species of Aspergillus, a fungus, the most notable ones being Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasitium
  • Aflatoxin B1 is known to be the most significant form that causes serious risk to animals and human health
common aflatoxin contaminated feed sources
Common Aflatoxin contaminated feed sources
  • Protein sources :
    • Groundnut cake
    • Palm kernel meal
    • Cotton seed cake
  • Energy sources:
    • Rice-bran
    • Wheat
    • Maize and by-products
  • Aflatoxin B1 is the most common form of the toxin- found in groundnut, maize and sorghum.
major risk factors
Major Risk factors
  • Tropical and subtropical environmental conditions
  • Poor feed storage and shipment conditions
  • lack of regulation in amount of aflatoxin in food and feed
  • Less attention given to feed quality control
  • Cultural practices of feed preservation
  • Low awareness on effects of aflatoxins
aflatoxins in fish
Aflatoxins in fish
  • Fish farming is becoming increasingly lucrative and proficient in Nigeria
  • 45% of the fish consumed in Nigeria are smoked - dried
  • Studies have confirmed that aflatoxin B concentrations in the sample of smooked fish were between 1.5 – 8.1 μg/kg, Adebayo-Tayo et al., 2008 .
  • Smoked-dried fish stored for sale in some parts of the country may be heavily contaminated with aflatoxins
  • An indication that prolonged intake of smoked fish with these metabolites may constitute potential public health hazard
aflatoxin in pigs
Aflatoxin in Pigs
  • It has been demonstrated that for each mg/kg increase of aflatoxin in the diet of pigs, the growth rate would be depressed by 16 % .
  • Feeding diets contaminated with aflatoxin increases the risk of vitamin s A and E deficiency in pigs and also depresses the immune system
  • Dietary aflatoxin B1 concentrations from 70 to 140 mg/kg decreased the rate of weight gain by 5 to 11 %, (Yueming Dersjant-Li.,et al; 2003)
  • Immune-suppressive effects of aflatoxin in pigs renders them more susceptible to any concurrent diseases - viral influenza and mycoplasma pneumonia and secondary infections .
  • Cumulatively , a big lose to pig fatteners who are after faster turnovers
aflatoxin in poultry
Aflatoxin in poultry
  • Poultry -the most affected, as over 60% of poultry feeds sources are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination
  • Poultry absorb aflatoxin faster but excrete the metabolites slower than other animals
  • Feeding of aflatoxin contaminated feed to poultry leads to:
    • Reduced feed intake
    • Reduced growth rate
    • Poor feed conversion efficiency
  • These are key indices in a successful poultry production
aflatoxin in man
Aflatoxin in man
  • Residues of aflatoxin and metabolites in food may lead to:

Liver damage, carcinogenic effect s in man, severe tissue and organ damage and can eventually result in death

  • Food stuff containing aflatoxin levels in excess of 20 ppb is not wholesome for human consumption and animal feeds.
toxin factors
Toxin factors
  • Heat stable – not destroyed by processing .
  • Invisible, odourless and tasteless .
  • Toxin passes through the food chain to humans - residues in muscles, kidneys, liver, eggs etc
  • Reduces feed intake, nutrients in feed and nutrient absorption, altered nutrient metabolism, immuno-suppression and cell death.

Abdu, 2012

regulations on aflatoxin
Regulations on Aflatoxin
  • No specific regulation on Aflatoxin in livestock feeds yet
  • NLDC in 2012 set up a committee to come up with a comprehensive and all encompassing proposal on regulation and standards of livestock feeds
  • Committee’s report to be considered and sent to the NCA’s meeting in 2013
  • ATA supports the institutionalization and review of regulations that will enhance food safety and international trade.
status of animal feed regulation
Status of animal feed regulation
  • Existing legislation is being reviewed to address current challenges in the livestock feed industry
  • Collaborating organizations and institutions include:
        • FMA&RD and agencies
        • SON
        • Feed industries
        • Livestock famers
challenges of aflatoxin in nigeria
Challenges of Aflatoxin in Nigeria
  • Un-quantified economic consequences:
    • Trade inhibition
    • Direct and indirect production losses
    • Post harvest losses to farmers
    • Disease burden in both human and animals
    • Mortality in both human and animals
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Feeding aflatoxin contaminated materials to animals and aquacultureimpairs:
      • Feed intake
      • Efficiency of feed utilization and/or animal health
      • Moreover, residues of aflatoxins, consumed by animals, can appear in animal products consumed by human
  • Realistic regulations on control of aflatoxins in animal feeds is crucial and important aspect of food safety.
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