Warm ups
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Warm-ups. Agenda. Three categories of systems. Structural – provide support, protection and movement to the body Transport – provide the body with needed materials and move them throughout the body Control – Send messages throughout the body to control movement, chemicals, and health.

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Warm ups

Warm-ups


Agenda

Agenda


Three categories of systems

Three categories of systems

  • Structural – provide support, protection and movement to the body

  • Transport – provide the body with needed materials and move them throughout the body

  • Control – Send messages throughout the body to control movement, chemicals, and health


Skeletal system bones cartilage ligaments tendons

SkeletalSystemBones, Cartilage, Ligaments, Tendons

  • Provide support for muscles so we can move

  • Protect organs (like brain, lungs, heart)

  • Store minerals (Magnesium and Calcium)

  • Make blood cells in the marrow

  • Gives us shape


Skeletal system

SkeletalSystem

Not everything is bone….

  • Cartilage: protects joints, provides structure (ears, nose) Is smooth white in diagram

  • Ligaments: Connect bones together at joints (e.g. ACL in knee)Is smooth pink

  • Tendons: Connect muscles to bonesis textured pink


Skeletal system1

SkeletalSystem

Periosteum

STRUCTURES

  • Parts of Bones:

    • Marrow(makes blood cells)

    • Spongy bone(lightweight with spaces for blood vessels & nerves)

    • Compact bone(very dense and strong)

    • Periostium(living protective outer membrane)


Joints

Joints

Joint = where bones meet

Moveable:

  • Gliding (wrist, ankle, vertebrae) – bones slide past each other

  • Pivot (forearm, neck) – bones spin around a point or axis

  • Ball and Socket (shoulder, hip) – bone with end like a ball can move in all directions

  • Hinge (knee, elbow, phalanges) – bones bend back and forth only

    Immoveable:

  • Cannot move – they protect organs (Ribs, Skull, pelvis)


Skeletal system questions

Skeletal System Questions

  • Name 2 functions of the skeletal system.

  • The four parts of bone are marrow, compact bone, periostium (membrane) and ______, which has spaces for nerves and blood vessels.

  • How is cartilage different than bone? Where do we have cartilage?

  • What two minerals do bones store?

  • What are joints? Name the 4 types.

  • Which type of joint do I have in my

    • Shoulder? Fingers?Wrist?Neck?

  • What tissues hold bones together?


Muscular system muscles cause bones to move

Muscular SystemMuscles cause bones to move

Three Types of Muscle

  • Skeletal (react quickly, TIRE) – MOVE BONES and are Voluntary

    • Attach to bones with tendons, work in pairs – they only contract (shorten) or relax, they cannot push

  • Smooth (react slowly, don’t tire) DIGESTION and are Involuntary

  • Cardiac(react quickly, don’t tire) HEART and are Involuntary


Muscular system

Muscular System

  • Pull on the bones to move

  • Tendons attach muscle to bones

  • Skeletal muscles work in pairs, especially at hinge joints, because they can pull, but cannot push – much like a string can pull, but not push on something.

  • One muscle will pull the bone in one direction. A second muscle will pull the bone the opposite way.


Skeletal muscles often work in pairs to flex and extend by contracting or relaxing

Skeletal muscles often work in pairs to flex and extend by contracting or relaxing

In each pair, one muscle when one muscle is contracted, the other is relaxed.


Muscle fatigue

Muscle Fatigue


Integumentary system skin

Integumentary System(skin)

  • Covers/protects the body from injury, infection, and sunburn (with melanin)

  • Prevents water loss

  • Regulates body temperature

    • Sweating, Goosebumps

  • Eliminates wastes (through sweat – salts)

  • Gathers info from the environment by feeling/touch through nerves

  • Produces Vitamin D


Integumentary system skin1

Integumentary System(skin)

  • Top Layer = Epidermis

    • Dead cells without nerves or blood vessels

    • Produce melanin, which gives skin its color and protects from sunburn. The more melanin, the more protection.

  • Lower Layer = Dermis

    • Contains nerves, blood vessels, hairs and hair follicles, oil glands, sweat glands, muscles attached to hairs (to make goodebumps), and fat for warmth

    • Sweat reaches the skin surface through pores

    • Oil helps waterproof hair and keep skin moist


Integumentary system skin2

Integumentary System(skin)

Dermis


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