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Globalization and the Process of Transformation in Language of Korean Students in America. Hi-Sun Kim University of Chicago AATK 2012. Introduction. Globalization and multilingualism in the 21 st century Languages of Korean International (KI) students

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Globalization and the process of transformation in language of korean students in america

Globalization and the Process of Transformation in Language of Korean Students in America

Hi-Sun Kim

University of Chicago

AATK 2012


Introduction
Introduction of Korean Students in America

  • Globalization and multilingualism in the 21st century

  • Languages of Korean International (KI) students

  • Languages of Korean American (KA) students


Research questions
Research Questions of Korean Students in America

  • What kinds of new language profiles and identities are constructed by the forces of globalization in KI and KA students in American universities?

  • How do such identity constructions in turn influence their motivation in language practices and learning?

  • What are the implications for Korean language teaching in the US and how will this new generation of KA and KI students, who are the products of new globalized economy, impact the Korean studies program?


Korean international students
Korean International Students of Korean Students in America

  • 유학생 versus 조기유학생

  • 2005-2006 (KEDI, 2007; Shin, 2010)

    • 69.5% increase of elementary students

    • 38.6% increase of middle school students

    • 15.5% increase of high school students

  • RQ:

    • Degrees of bilingualism for Korean & English?

    • Process of their new construction of language profile?

    • Value or advancement of Korean language & culture?


Korean american students
Korean American Students of Korean Students in America

  • Immigrant language profile: shift to dominant language (e.g. English)

  • Heritage language loss; attrition; assimilation

  • Degree of bilinugalism & Bilingual profiles (Monstrul, 2009): Simultaneous/Sequential/Late child L2 learners

  • RQ:

    • Change in value of heritage language (i.e., Korean)?

    • Shift in motivation to advance in heritage language due tothe globalized economy?


The study

The Study of Korean Students in America


Questionnaire survey
Questionnaire Survey of Korean Students in America

  • Demographic information & place of education from K-12

  • L1 and extent of Korean language exposure

  • Korean language usage with family, peers, etc.

  • Self evaluation/ confidence level in translation

  • Expectation to use Korean & English in future

  • Korean language identity, value, and their motivation for Korean language advancement


Participants
Participants of Korean Students in America

  • 54 students (KI=37; KA=17/ M=29; F=25)

  • Age range 18-32

  • Popular majors:

    • KI: 51% Economics

    • KA: Biology (3 out of 17)

    • Other majors: math, history, public policy, political science, fine arts, music, human development, statistics, industrial design, architecture, philosophy


Background information
Background Information of Korean Students in America


Education pattern
Education Pattern of Korean Students in America


Lived with native speaker
Lived with Native Speaker of Korean Students in America


L1 age 0 5
L1 Age 0-5 of Korean Students in America


Exposure of korean language culture
Exposure of of Korean Students in AmericaKorean Language & Culture


Speaking to and spoken to from
Speaking to and spoken to from of Korean Students in America


Other usage and exposure
Other Usage and Exposure of Korean Students in America


I am confident communicating in
I am confident communicating in: of Korean Students in America


I am confident translating reading materials
I am confident translating of Korean Students in Americareading materials…


I am confident in the following korean language skills
I am confident in the following of Korean Students in AmericaKorean language skills:


In the future i expect to use
In the future, I expect to use of Korean Students in America


Are you interested in improving your korean language
Are you interested in of Korean Students in Americaimproving your Korean language?




Discussion

Discussion would you support?


Globalization and korean international students
Globalization and would you support? Korean International Students

  • Monica Heller (2010):

    “It is not the globalization alone that is so new, but rather the emergence of the globalized new economy, which has new conditions for the production of language practices and forms and new challenges to current ways of thinking about language.” (p. 349)


Globalization and korean international students1
Globalization and would you support? Korean International Students

  • Acquisition of American (or British) English

  • Shift from hakwon to immersion (조기유학)

  • 86% of KI students have experienced or started an English immersion education in primary, middle, or high school

  • Possess a rather balanced bilingual identity (e.g. high confidence in both languages reported)

  • Expects to use English at work and Korean at home & with peers

  • Fluency not enough, but fluency with authentic or native-like English pronunciation and proficiency


Globalization and korean international students2
Globalization and would you support? Korean International Students

  • 조기유학 = key to entering and competing in the new global market

  • “Authentic” English as marker of elite status in the new economic order in Korea (Shin, 2010)

  • Process of constructing a balanced Korean-English bilingual is not only economically driven, but also socially driven.


Globalization and korean american students
Globalization and would you support? Korean American Students

  • Globalization = Americanization and McDonaldization (Crystal, 2004; Bhatt 2001; Phillipson, 2003, etc.)

  • Exclusive reliance on English as a growing disadvantage in US and Uk (Djite, 2008) & multilingual education has social market benefit (Skutnabb-Kangas & Phillipson, 2010)

  • Then, KA/HL speakers should have an advantage


Globalization and korean american students1
Globalization and would you support? Korean American Students

  • Kim (2002): Language usage, exposure, motivation, and attitude of Korean HL learners at UHM

    • L1 (2002) 34% (E) - 34% (K) – 29% (Both)

    • L1 (2011) 12% (E) – 77% (K) – 12% (Both)

    • Slightly more Korean language usage with similar patterns (e.g. more Korean usage with mother than father)

    • Rates Korean as difficult with most confidence in listening and least confident in writing

    • Hence, global new economy does NOT seem to have any significant change in motivation


Globalization and korean american students2
Globalization and would you support? Korean American Students

  • With US ranking high in the global hierarchies, the study reveals KA students have different experiences of globalization by comparison with KI students, which is low (unchanged) motivation to invest in their HL language.

  • However, overall increase on awareness of language as a resource


Globalization and korean language program
Globalization and would you support? Korean Language Program

  • Globalization in the 21st century has brought new definition to KI and KA students

  • KI students (compared to NS) possess gaps in knowledge of content areas (e.g., literature, history, etc.)

  • KA students possess gaps in metalinguistic knowledge


Conclusion globalization and korean language program
CONCLUSION: would you support? Globalization and Korean Language Program

  • Strong implications for Korean programs to incorporate metalinguistic based courses for KA students and content-based advanced level courses for KI students

  • Korean language programs should meet demands of constructing new levels of Korean-English bilingualism for KI and KA students in order for them to successfully compete in the new global economy


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