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Chapter Three: People & Ideas on the Move 2000 BCE-250 – 250 BC pg. 58 - 83 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter Three: People & Ideas on the Move 2000 BCE-250 – 250 BC pg. 58 - 83. Why Might You Leave Your Homeland?. Indo-Europeans. Indo-Europeans nomadic people came from steppes north on the Caucasus Herded cattle, sheep, & goats

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Chapter Three: People & Ideas on the Move 2000 BCE-250 – 250 BC pg. 58 - 83

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Chapter Three:People & Ideas on the Move 2000 BCE-250 – 250 BC pg. 58 - 83

Why Might You Leave Your Homeland?


  • Indo-Europeans

    • nomadic people came from steppes north on the Caucasus

    • Herded cattle, sheep, & goats

    • Tamed horses & rode into battle in light, two wheeled chariots

    • Lived in tribes that spoke forms of language that we now called Indo-European

Spread & Influence of Indo-European language

  • ancestor of modern European languages

  • English, Spanish, Persian, German, & Hindi trace origins to Indo-European language

  • Historians can tell where Indo-European tribes settled by their language

    -Slavic- north & west

    -Celtic, Germanic, & Italian- west through Europe

    -Greek & Persian- south

    -Sanskrit- India

Unexplained Migration

  • Reasons unknown

  • Migrated outward in all directions between 1700 & 1200 B.C.E.

  • Migrations happened over long period

The Hittite Empire

  • Occupied Anatolia (Asia Minor)

  • high, rocky plateau, rich in timber & agriculture

  • mountains nearby hold important mineral deposits

  • Separate city-states formed empire in 1650 B.C.E.

  • Dominated SW Asia for 450 years

  • Fought Egypt for control of Syria

  • neither won-signed peace treaty

Hittites Adopt & Adapt

Winged deity, 13th c

  • Used Indo-European language with one another

  • For international use, they adopted Akkadian

  • Blended their own traditions with those of others; Mesopotamians, etc.

Seated goddess with a child, Hittite Empire, Old Hittite; 15th–13th century B.C.E

Vessel terminating in the forepart of a bull, 15th–13th century B.C.

Hittite Chariot & Iron technology

  • won many wars through their superior chariots & iron weapons

  • Around 1500 B.C.E, Hittites were 1st in SW Asia to work with iron & harden it into weapons of war

  • Raw materials ( iron, ore,& wood) were easily available in Anatolian mountains

  • Hittite empire fell suddenly in 1190 B.C. E. - attacks from tribes from north

Wooden frame

Two wheels

Pulled by 2 horses

Aryans Transform India

  • Aryans homeland was probably between Caspian & Aral sea-some think originated in far NW India/Pakistan

  • Migrated into Indus Valley

  • Brought sacred literature, the Vedas, revealed Aryan life

  • four collections of prayer, magical spells, & instructions for performing rituals

  • most important part was Rig Veda-1028 hymns to Aryran gods

  • Passed orally-later written

Vedas texts

Aryans Develop Varna/Caste System

Purusha, 1st human, the creator god, Brahma

  • Varna = color

  • Distinguish between Aryans & dasas (darker skinned original peoples)

  • organized into 4 groups based on occupation (Jati)

    - Brahmins (priests)

    - warriors

    - traders & landowners

    - peasants

  • In 15th century Portuguese called it castes

  • determined work, marriage, & whom they could eat with

  • Cleanliness was important-butchers, grave diggers, trash collectors became “untouchables”

Aryan Kingdoms Rise & Expand

  • Aryans extended settlement east, along Ganges & Yamuna river valleys

  • At first, chiefs were elected by members of tribe

  • Minor kings emerged and conflict arose

  • Major kingdom of Magadha used iron tools & weapons to expand & occupy most of India

  • Mahabharata, one of the great epics from India reflects the struggles that took place in India as the Aryan kings worked to control Indian lands

“The Mahabharata”

He who thinks this self to be a slayer, and he who thinks this self to be slain, are both without discernment; the soul slays not, neither is it slain… but if you will not wage this lawful battle, then will you fail your own caste law and your honor, and incur sin,…the people will name you with dishonor and to a man of fame dishonor is worse than death.

Krishna, speaking in the Bhagavad Gita

At first, Aryans and non-Arans followed their own forms of religion. As they intermingled, their religious beliefs blended; created hundreds of gods. Culture became more complex-led to questioning of the world, and the wealth and power held by Brahmin priests. Out of the turmoil, new religious ideas arose.

Hinduism & Buddhism Develop


  • Moksha is a state of perfect understanding of all things

  • When a person understands the relationship between atman and Brahman, that person achieves perfect understanding (moksha) and a release from life in this world.

  • Through a process called reincarnation, a person’s soul or spirit is born again and again until moksha is achieved.

  • Karma is a soul’s good or bad deeds. If a person is born as a Brahman, warrior, or merchant, his fortune came from good karma earned in their former life. However if a person is born as a female, a laborer, or an untouchable, they would be getting bad karma from their former life.

  • Hindus believe Brahman, the world soul, had the personalities of three gods: Brahma, the creator; Vishnu, the protector; and Shiva, the destroyer. Over time, Brahman faded into the background while Devi, the great Mother Goddess, grew important.


  • founded by Siddhartha Gautama

  • After witnessing the pain of the world, decided to search for religious truth and an end to life’s suffering

  • spent 6 years seeking enlightenment

  • He tried many traditional methods yet non worked

  • One day he sat in meditation under a fig tree-after 49 days of meditation, he found his answer

  • From then on he was called Buddha-preached his first sermon to his followers

Buddhist beliefs

  • Buddhists believe in the Four Noble Truths

  • The eight-fold path is a guide to behavior. By following the Eighth-fold path, anyone could reach nirvana, release from selfishness and pain.

  • Buddhists also believe in reincarnation.

Buddhism Spreads

  • During his life and after his death missionaries spread his faith over large parts of Asia

  • Monks & nuns set up monasteries for study

  • Along with goods, traders carried Buddhism beyond India to China, then Korea & Japan via Silk Roads

  • Also spread via Indian Ocean Maritime system to SE - Burma, Thailand, island of Sumatra


  • Powerful seafaring people-dominated trade in eastern Mediterranean from 2000 to 1400 B.C.E.

  • Lived in Crete on southern edge of the Aegean Sea

  • Traded pottery, swords, figurines, & precious metals

  • Exported art & culture ( unique architecture, burial customs, & religious rituals)

  • Knossos was Minoan capital city

  • Known as graceful, athletic people-enjoyed boxing, wrestling, & bull leaping

  • Egalitarian society-women held a high rank

Minoan Civilization Ends

  • Minoan civilization ended around 1200B.C.E

  • Exact reasons are unclear-historians believe it was series of natural disasters ( many earthquakes, volcanic eruption, & tidal wave) in 1470B.C.E.

  • Invaders from Greece took advantage of weakened state & destroyed them


  • About 1100B.C.E, most powerful traders in Mediterranean were the Phoenicians

  • Founded many wealthy city-states; Byblos, Tyre, & Sidon,-became important trading centers

  • Remarkable shipbuilders & seafarers

  • Sailed to Straight of Gibraltar, Britain, & around Africa

  • Traded wine, weapons, precious metals, ivory, & slaves

  • Many craftspeople-worked with wood, metal, glass, & ivory

  • Established colonies along north coast of Africa & coasts of Sicily, Sardinia, & Spain.

Phoenician Alphabet

  • Because Phoenicians were merchants, they needed a way of recording transactions quickly & clearly

  • Developed writing system- used symbols to represent sounds

  • The word “alphabet” comes from two letters in the Phoenician alphabet: alph& beth

  • Greeks adopted Phoenicia’s alphabet

  • Major contribution to world-simplified alphabet-made learning accessible to many people

Ancient Trade Routes

  • Trade connected Mediterranean Sea w/ other parts of world such as South & East Asia

  • Trade routes connected Arabian Sea to Persian Gulf & Red Sea

  • Traders went to Egypt & Syria

  • To cross Arabian Sea sailors used monsoon winds which blew southwest during the hot months & northeast during the cold season

Palestine and Canaan

  • Palestine - cultural crossroads of ancient world - connected two great empires: Africa & Asia

  • Assyria & Babylonia lay to west - Egypt to east

  • Seaports opened onto two most important waterways of the time: Mediterranean & Red Sea

  • Hebrews settled in Canaan- between Jordon River & Mediterranean

  • Canaan - land God had promised to Jews, according to the Bible

The Torah

  • Jews holy book is called the Torah

  • Recounts origins of humanity & Judaism

  • Contains basic laws of Judaism

  • Early history of Jews can be found in first five books of the Torah


  • In the Torah, God chose Abraham to be the “father” of the Hebrew people

  • Abraham, a shepherd, lived in city of Ur, in Mesopotamia

  • God commanded him to move his people to Canaan saying,…

  • “Go from your country and your kindred and your father’s house to the land that I will show you. I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great.”

    Genesis 12:1-2

Abraham’s Journey

  • Abraham and his family roamed for many years from Mesopotamia to Canaan to Egypt and back to Canaan.

Their God

  • Unlike other groups around them, Hebrews practiced monotheism - a belief in single god

  • name of their god - Yahweh

  • To Hebrews, Yahweh was the one, only god - had power over all peoples

  • Yahweh looked after Hebrews, not because of sacrifices and rituals, but because Abraham had promised to obey him

  • In return, Yahweh promised to protect Abraham & his descendants.

  • mutual promise is called a covenant.

Moses & the Exodus

  • Hebrews migrated to Egypt because of drought & famine between 1300 &1200 B.C.E

  • Initially given places of honor in the Egyptian Kingdom

  • Then forced into slavery-or at least treated badly because of their “foreigner” status

  • Exodus remember as “Passover”

  • Leader was Moses

Moses & the Exodus

The Torah says Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt

  • During time of Moses’ birth, Egyptian king felt threatened by number of Hebrews in Egypt-ordered all male babies killed

  • Moses’ mother hid him on banks of Nile

  • Egyptian princess found- adopted him

  • Raised in luxury, but didn’t forget his Hebrew birth

  • God commanded him to lead Jews out of Egypt, he obeyed

The Ten Commandments

  • While Hebrews were traveling, Moses climbed to top of Mount Sinai to talk to God

  • When he came down from mountain, he brought two stone tablets-the Ten Commandments

  • Ten Commandments became basis for civil & religious laws of Judaism

  • Hebrews believed this was a new covenant

  • God promised to protect Hebrews- they promised to keep God’s commandments

A New Life

  • Hebrews wandered for 40 years in Sinai Desert

  • Moses died, they returned to Canaan

  • Changed from nomadic, tribal society to settled herders, farmers & city dwellers

  • Organized into 12 self-governed tribes

  • Judges-both military, legal and political authority-one of the most prominent of whom was a woman, Deborah

  • Many enemies in the area-conflict over resources

  • Hebrews expanded south and north

Saul & David

  • Leaders occasionally pulled together scattered tribes for a united military force

  • Philistines threatened Hebrews position in ancient Palestine

  • Eventually, 12 tribes became one big tribe of Judah. As a result, Hebrews came to be called Jews, hence Judaism

  • From 1020 to 922B.C., Jews united under three kings: Saul, David & Solomon

  • New kingdom called Israel

  • First to rule was Saul-tragic man given to bouts of jealousy

  • After his death, his son-in-law, David, came to power

  • King David, popular leader, united tribes, established Jerusalem as capital-founded a dynasty


  • In 962B.C. David succeeded by son, Solomon

  • built trade empire- beautified Jerusalem

  • built temple to glorify God-became permanent home for Ark of Covenant- contained tablets of Moses’ law

  • temple had bronze pillars at entrance, stone on outside & cedar covered in gold on inside-main hall was richly decorated with brass & gold

The Kingdom Divides

  • Solomon’s building projects required high taxes, badly straining the kingdom’s finances

  • In addition, men were forced to spend one month out of every three working on the temple

  • The expense and forced labor caused much discontent

  • After Solomon’s death, the Jews in the northern part of the kingdom revolted

  • In 922 B.C., the kingdom divided in two: Israel to the north and Judah to the south

  • For the next 200 years, Israel and Judah sometimes fought each other and at other times, joined together against outside enemies

Assyrian Tribute

  • In 738B.C., both Israel and Judah began paying tribute, peace money paid by a weaker power to a stronger one, to Assyria.

  • By paying tribute, Israel and Judah hoped that Assyria would not attack.

  • But the tribute was not enough and in 725B.C., the Assyrians began to attack Samaria, the capital of Israel.

  • By 722 B.C., the whole northern kingdom had fallen to the Assyrians attack.

Babylonian Captivity

  • Judah resisted for 150 years before it too was destroyed

  • After conquering Israel, Assyrians lost power to rising Babylonian empire

  • Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar, ran Egyptians out of Syria & Palestine-attacked Jerusalem twice

  • The city fell in 586B.C.E.-Solomon’s temple destroyed

  • Many survivors exiled to Babylon

  • Fifty years later, in 539B.C.E, Persian king, Cyrus the Great, conquered Babylon

  • Cyrus allowed Jews to return & rebuild Solomon’s temple-completed in 515 B.C.E.

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