Plant taxonomy
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Plant Taxonomy. Scientific Classification of Plants By: Stephen Edwards, Johnny Jessup & Scott Robison Agriculture Teachers/FFA Advisors. Goals. Define Plant Taxonomy Discover why plants are classified through the binomial naming system Order plants in each of the classification sections.

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Plant Taxonomy

Scientific Classification of Plants

By: Stephen Edwards, Johnny Jessup & Scott Robison

Agriculture Teachers/FFA Advisors


Goals

  • Define Plant Taxonomy

  • Discover why plants are classified through the binomial naming system

  • Order plants in each of the classification sections


What Is Taxonomy?

  • Taxonomy is the science of classifying and identifying plants using scientific names


Why Use Scientific Names?

  • Scientific names are necessary because

    • Same common name are used for two different plants

    • More than one common name are used for the same plant

      • Sweetgum or Liquidamber?


Carolus Linnaeus

  • Swedish botanist Karl von Linne came up with the idea in the mid-18th century with a system that would give each species of plant its own name

  • His system is called the binomial system


Binomial System

  • The system uses two words for the full name

  • The system is based on the Latin language, since Latin is the language that is used worldwide by scientists

  • To propose his new idea, Linne changed his name to its Latin form, Carolus Linnaeus


Genus

  • In the scientific name, the first name is the genus

  • All plants in the same genus have the same type of reproductive structures

  • The genus is always capitalized

  • Examples of genera

  • Cornus – dogwoodAcer - maple

  • Quercus – oakIlex – holly

  • Magnolia - magnolia


Species

  • The second word, when combined with the first word is the species

  • Species are able to reproduce sexually to end up with the same characteristics in their offspring

  • The second word is usually descriptive of the plant in some type

  • The second word, or specific epithet is always lower case


Examples of Specific Epithets

  • Large showy flowers – grandiflora

  • Red – rubrum

  • White - alba

  • Flowering – florida

  • From Japan - japonicum

  • From America – americana

  • Dwarf- nana


Quick Review

  • Using your previous notes what are the common names of the following species

  • 1.Acer rubrum

  • 2.Quercus alba

  • 3.Cornus florida

  • 4.Magnolia grandiflora


Variety or Cultivar

  • Variety is a variation of a plant that is found in nature and that can be reproduced through sexual propagation

  • Cultivar is a “cultivated variety” and cultivated by man for a specific reason. They are usually asexually propagated


Writing Varieties

  • Varieties are written with a var. Following the species name, then the variety. Varieties are italicized

  • Sanseveria trifasciata var. Laurentii


Writing Cultivars

  • Cultivars are written in single quotes following a species name. They are not italicized

  • Ficus elastica ‘Decora’

  • Cultivar= cv.


Plant Hierarchy

  • Plant classification can be broken down in the plant hierarchy system

  • All plants, from one cell organisms to the tallest trees are in the plant kingdom

  • All members of the plant kingdom are autotrophs, meaning that they can produce their own food. Plants do this through photosynthesis


Plant Hierarchy

General

  • Kingdom

  • Division

  • Classes

  • Orders

  • Families

  • Genera

  • Species

Specific


Plant Divisions

  • The Plant Kingdom is broken down into many divisions. The four most important are

    • Thallophytes

    • Bryophytes

    • Pteriophytes

    • Spermatophytes


Thallophytes

  • No true stems, leaves, or roots

  • Either one cell or a mass of cells. No form/function

  • Examples include Algae and Lichens


Bryophytes

  • Lack a vascular system for the transportation of water

  • Examples include Mosses and Liverworts


Pteriophytes

  • Non-seed vascular plants

  • These plants reproduce through spores, not seeds

  • Examples include ferns and club mosses


Spermatophytes

  • The Spermatophyte Division is the division that we work the most with in Horticulture

  • These plants produce seeds

  • This division is divided into two sub-divisions

    • Gymnosperms

    • Angiosperms


Gymnosperms

  • Cone Bearing Plants


Angiosperms

  • Fruit Producing Plants


Subdivision Angiosperms

  • Angiosperms are divided into two classes

    • Monocotyledon

    • Dicotyledonous


Monocotyledon

  • One-seed leaves

  • Examples include Lilies, Palms, Corn, and Grass


Dicotyledon

  • Two seed leaves

  • Examples include most of the broadleaf plants


Class Breakdown

  • Classes are broken into Orders

  • Orders are broken into Families

  • Families are broken into Genera

  • Genera are broken into Species

  • Species can be broken into varieties or cultivars


Kingdom

Division

Classes

Orders

Families

Genera

Species

Plant

Spermatophyte

Magnoliopsida

Rosales

Fabaceae

Cercis

Cercis canadensis

Example of a Class Breakdown - Redbud


Cercis canadensis - Redbud


Plant Characteristics


Identifying Plants

  • Physical characteristics are used to identify plants which include….

    • Life Cycle

    • Form

    • Foliage Retention

    • Plant Parts

    • Use & Location


Life Cycle

  • Annuals

    • Plants that complete their life cycle in one year.

  • Biennials

    • Plants that complete their life cycle in two years.

  • Perennials

    • Plants that live more than two years.


Growth Habits

  • Trees

    • 20’ or taller

  • Shrubs

    • Less than 20’

  • Vines


Columnar

Spreading

Weeping

Round

Oval

Pyramidal

Growth Forms


Spreading

Columnar

Weeping

Growth Forms


Round

Pyramidal

Oval

Growth Forms


Foliage Retention

  • Deciduous

    • Loses leaves during the dormant season.

    • Not necessarily winter, may be summer for some plants

  • Evergreen

    • Keeps leaves and remains green year-round.


Deciduous vs. Evergreen


Plant Parts – Leaf

  • Arrangement

  • Shapes

  • Color

  • Vein Pattern

  • Form – Simple or Compound

  • Margin

  • Surface


Leaf Arrangement – Simple


Leaf Arrangement – Compound


Leaf Shape


Vein Pattern

  • Pinnate

  • Palmate

  • Parallel

  • Dichotomous


Leaf Margin


Glabrous

Pubescent

Villous

Tomentose

Scabrous

Glaucous

Rugose

Glandular

Leaf Surface

  • There are 8 common leaf surfaces.


Leaf Surface – Glabrous

  • The surface is smooth, not hairy.


Leaf Surface – Pubescent

  • Short, soft hairs cover the surface.


Leaf Surface – Villous

  • Long, straight hairs cover the surface.


Leaf Surface – Tomentose

  • Covered with wool-like hair.


Leaf Surface – Scabrous

  • Covered with short, prickly hairs.


Leaf Surface – Glaucous

  • Covered with a bluish-white waxy substance.


Leaf Surface – Rugose

  • Surface is wrinkly.


Leaf Surface – Glandular

  • Glands filled with oil or resin cover the surface.


Plant Parts – Flowers

  • Color

  • Shape

  • Size


Plant Parts – Bud & Stem

  • Shape & Color

  • Stem Modifications

    • Thorns

    • Spines

    • Prickles


Thorn

Spine

Prickle

Plant Parts – Modified Stems


Plant Parts – Roots

  • Tap

  • Fibrous

  • Bulb


Tuberous Root

Tap Root

Fibrous Root

Plant Parts – Roots


Cones

Nuts (Acorns)

Pomes (Apple)

Drupes (Peach)

Brambles (Raspberries)

Capsules (Willow)

Samara (Maple)

Plant Parts – Fruit


Pomes

Cones

Acorns

Plant Parts – Fruit


Capsules

Brambles

Samara

Drupes

Plant Parts – Fruit


Use & Location

  • Not absolute, but helpful.

  • Indoor or outdoor.

  • Altitude

  • Wet or dry

  • Hardiness Zone

  • Sun, partial shade, or shade.

  • Landscape purpose – specimen, border, etc.


Reply to the Following Statement

  • Explain how the binomial naming system is important to the Horticulture world

  • Give 3-5 sentences for an answer


Designed by

  • Stephen Edwards

    • South Granville High School

  • Johnny M. Jessup

    • Hobbton High School

  • Scott Robison

    • Knightdale High School


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