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Landscape Development & Environmental Change

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Landscape Development & Environmental Change. Landscapes : the features of Earth’s surface Stream Drainage : the shape of the stream in an area . Mountains, Plateaus, & Plains. Based on gradient, elevation, & rock structure.

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Landscapes: the features of Earth’s surface

  • Stream Drainage: the shape of the stream in an area
mountains plateaus plains
Mountains, Plateaus, & Plains
  • Based on gradient, elevation, & rock structure.
  • Mountains: high elevation, steep gradient, and distorted rock structures.

Adirondack Mountains, NY

mountains plateaus plains1
Mountains, Plateaus, & Plains
  • Plateaus: high elevation, flat slope, undistorted horizontal rock structure.
mountains plateaus plains2
Mountains, Plateaus, & Plains
  • Plains: low elevation, flat surface, usually sedimentary rocks
factors of landscape development
Factors of Landscape Development
  • Uplifting forcesand leveling forcescan form and change landscapes.
    • Impact events can also change landscapes.
  • Sources of energy:
    • Uplifting: heat from Earth’s interior / mantle convection
    • Leveling: insolation & gravity
time landscape changes
Time & Landscape Changes
  • Landscape features depend on the length of time that uplifting and leveling forces have acted on the rocks.
  • Dynamic Equilibrium: at any one time, landscape features reflect a state of balance.
climate and landscape development
Climate and Landscape Development
  • Landscapes are influenced by:
    • Temperature
    • Moisture
  • Arid Climates
    • Steep slopes, and sharp, angular landscape features.
    • Sandblasted features
  • Humid Climates
    • More rounded, smooth landscape features

Arid climate

Humid climate

climate and landscape development1
Climate and Landscape Development
  • Recent Glaciation Landscape Features:
    • Mountaintops with little soil
    • Widespread transported soil
    • Unsorted soil
    • Wide, U-shaped valleys
    • Many lakes
    • Parallel grooves in bedrock
    • Many small hills (drumlins, etc.)
climate and landscape development2
Climate and Landscape Development
  • Soil and Climate:
    • Soils in arid regions are thin/nonexistent, sandy, and contain many minerals.

These trees are growing in an arid climate.

  • The composition and structure of bedrock can affect the landscape in a region.
  • Rock types and hill slopes:
    • Structural Features: folds, faults, etc. can lead to many changes in landscape features in an area.
    • Streams: the direction, drainage pattern, features, and gradient of a stream are directly related to bedrock.
  • Rock types and hill slopes:

3. Soils: differences in soil composition are due to differences in underlying bedrock.

effect of landscapes on people
Effect of Landscapes ON People
  • Streams and Rivers
    • Dangerous flooding
  • Ocean shores
    • Dangerous flooding, hurricanes, rise in sea level
  • Clay-rich areas
    • Slow mass movement; landslides, liquefaction during earthquakes
  • Dangers can be reduced with proper planning, laws, and zoning limitations.
changes of landscapes by people
Changes of Landscapes BY People
  • Humans have GREATLY affected the environment:
changes of landscapes by people1
Changes of Landscapes BY People
  • Human population increasing RAPIDLY
    • Landscape pollution is HIGHEST in areas with HIGH population density.