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Bacteria. .: Support bacteria - they're the only culture some people have :. What is bacteria?. True bacteria are the oldest organisms on earth organisms made up of just one cell capable of multiplying by themselves, as they have the power to divide some bacteria can cause diseases

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Bacteria

Bacteria

.: Support bacteria - they're theonly culture some people have :.


What is bacteria
What is bacteria?

  • True bacteria are the oldest organisms on earth

  • organisms made up of just one cell

  • capable of multiplying by themselves, as they have the power to divide

  • some bacteria can cause diseases

  • Sometimes they are just in the wrong place but other times they are designed to invade our bodies!!

  • Bacterial infections are usually treated with a special antibiotic that only kills the bacterium that has caused the disease.


Common shapes of bacteria
Common Shapes of Bacteria

BACILLUS

COCCUS

SPIRILLUM


Reproduction of bacteria
Reproduction of Bacteria

  • Bacteria may reproduce either asexually or sexually.

  • Primarily they reproduce asexually, which they accomplish by simple cell division.

    • During this process, one cell divides into two daughter cells with the development of a transverse cell wall.

  • genetic variations can occur within individual cells through recombinant


Malicious bacteria

Malicious Bacteria =(

Why did the paramecium cross the road?

He was stuck to the chicken's butt.


Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever
Typhoid Fever and Paratyphoid Fever

  • is an infectious feverish disease

    • severe symptoms in the digestive system

  • caused by an infection with the bacterium Salmonella typhi,

    • which is only found in humans and may lead to serious illness.

  • Salmonella typhi can only attack humans

  • the bacterium is passed on with water and foods and can withstand both drying and refrigeration.


Salmonella and food poisoning
Salmonella and Food Poisoning

  • found in poultry, eggs, unprocessed milk and in meat and water

  • attacks the stomach and intestines

  • enters the lymph tracts, which carry water and protein to the blood, and the blood itself

  • Symptoms:-

    • Diarrhea (constipation), headaches, stomach cramps, nausea and vomiting


Anthrax
Anthrax

  • a bacterial disease caused by an organism called Bacillus anthracis

  • is capable of producing spores

  • It’s a disease of grass-eating animals such as sheep, goats, cattle and horses so humans won’t get infected unless they are exposed to infected animals

  • Symptoms: -

    • Vomiting, nausea, fever

IT IS NOT CONTAGIOUS!


Botulism
Botulism

  • serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin

    • produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum (found in soil)

    • can’t be detected unless diagnosed (ex: a cat scan)

  • 110 cases of botulism each year

  • Clostridium botulinum

    • name of a group of bacteria

    • rod-shaped organisms grow best in low oxygen conditions.

    • bacteria form spores - allows them to survive in a dormant state


Types of botulism
Types of Botulism

  • Foodborne botulism caused by eating foods that contain the botulism toxin (25% of the cases)

  • Wound botulism is caused by toxin produced from a wound infected with Clostridium botulinum (72% of the cases)

  • Infant botulism is caused by consuming the spores of the botulinum bacteria, which then grow in the intestines and release toxin

    NOTE: ALL TYPES ARE FATAL AND SHOULD RECEIVE MEDICAL ATTENTION!!


The plague
The Plague

  • The Black Death wiped out complete villages in Europe in the 14th century. Largest outbreak of a bacteria.

  • The epidemic lasted about 200 years and affected all aspects of social and economic life.

  • Carried by fleas, rodents and humans.


Gram positive
Gram Positive (+)

  • Gram positive bacteria have simple walls composed primarily of peptidoglycan

  • Secrete exotoxins which can infect a host without the bacteria actually being present


Gram negative
Gram Negative (-)

  • Gram negative bacteria have relatively complex walls with lipopolysaccharides which are often toxic, making the walls of gram-negative bacteria toxic

  • Often more resistant than gram positive Bacteria to antibiotics

  • Usually more deadly than gram-positive bacteria, but must be present for symptoms to occur. Do not secrete exotoxins


Beneficial bacteria

Beneficial Bacteria =)

Why did the bacteria cross the road?

To prove he wasn't chicken.


Good bacteria
Good Bacteria:

  • Used in soil enrichment

  • Used for pickling and preserving

  • Used for fermentation

  • Used to decompose organic waste

  • The bacteria that live within us, help to build and maintain a strong gastrointestinal barrier against invasion and damage by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and toxic substances.

Lactobacillus reuteri


Bacteria is a part of everyday life
Bacteria is a part of everyday life

  • The bacteria that live within us as symbionts, help to build and maintain a strong gastrointestinal barrier against invasion and damage by pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and toxic substances.


Combating bad bacteria d

Combating Bad Bacteria =D

Why did the bacteria cross the playground?

To get to the other slide..


Antibodies
Antibodies

  • An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize bacteria

  • Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target

  • Antibodies that recognize bacteria mark them for ingestion by macrophages.

  • Together with the plasma component complement, antibodies can kill bacteria directly.


Antibiotics
Antibiotics

  • Drugs that help cure certain infections by impairing bacteria.

  • First antibiotic discovered was penicillin.

  • Some fungi produce antibiotics used to treat bacterial infections

  • The dark side is that antibiotics caused the evolution of antibiotic-resistant populations of the very bacteria the drugs were meant to kill


Prevention
Prevention

  • Improvements in prevention of bacterial infections come more from improved public health policies than so-called “wonder-drugs”. Generally little can be done to combat bacterial infections directly other than keeping your living conditions and yourself sanitary.


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