Enduring Understandings. A government’s actions impacts its citizens. People tend to justify their actions based on ideals and principles. New ideas can lead to conflict and change. Individuals and groups have struggled to attain equality.
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The EnlightenmentA time period where philosophers began to use logic and reason to look at the world, it’s laws, and how we treat each other.
Famous philosophers of the Enlightenment:
Montesquieu Rousseau Locke Smith
Also known as the “Age of Reason”.
SapereAude! [Dare to know!] Have the courage to use your own intelligence! is therefore the motto of the enlightenment.
-- Immanuel Kant
Baron de Montesquieu
1st Public Schools established in Massachusetts
Universities in the colonies:
Harvard (New College) College of William & Mary Yale University (College School)
University of Pennsylvania Princeton University Columbia Univ. (King’s College)
Brown University Dartmouth College Rutgers (Queen’sCollege)
Major source of information and communication was through a printer’s office.
Printersserved many different roles:
The burning of Zenger's New York Weekly Journal (Bettman Archive)
the French + their Native American allies.
2. Conflict began in the North American colonies.
3. Called the Seven Year’s War in Europe.
The results of this war will be a major cause for the colonists to want to fight for independence.
Suggestion to the English Colonies that they needed to unite together to fight the French or they would fail.
“Join, or Die”
The Colonists & the King did not want to pay to keep the armies in the colonies & western frontier.
Forbid colonists to settle west of the Appalachian mountains
Colonists upset. Why?
They fought the French and Indian War War.
Money paid to the government.
1. Pay for the war with France – it was expensive.
2. Extra troops were sent to protect the colonies – it was expensive.
Military officers could enter homes or businesses to search for smuggled goods.
Many colonists felt these violated their natural rights.
Massachusetts lawyer who protested against unfair English laws such as illegal searches.
Raised the issue:
No Taxation Without Representation!
Law that said that colonists had to provide:
to British soldiers.
Mostly affected New York
All legal and commercial documents had to carry a stamp to show that taxes were paid in silver.
Tax on :
What is the trend?
Argued that the colonies should withdraw and form their own country.
Some protests were violent:
1. Burning of stamped paper
2. Attacking officials
…many tax collectors quit their positions.
Many colonists started making their own goods rather than buy from Britain.
Nine colonies sent representatives.
Write a petition to King George III to repeal the Stamp Act and Sugar Act.
Grievance: “No taxation without representation” violates colonists rights.
Parliament repeals the Stamp Act!!!
“The Americans have not acted in all things with prudence and [good] temper. They have been driven to madness by injustice. Will you punish them for the madness you have [caused]?”
Parliament had the supreme power to write laws about the colonies.
Ex- Basil tea, coffee
Sarah Bradlee Fulton