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Stark Road Gospel Hall Summer Series 2005 Jim C. Vallance July 13, 2005 God’s Self-Revelation: He has spoken (Heb 1:1-2). 1) God has spoken through His handiwork – Creation i) A Look Back …. Outline derived from … Acts 17:23-26 (ESV). _________________________________________________.

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Stark Road Gospel Hall Summer Series 2005 Jim C. VallanceJuly 13, 2005God’s Self-Revelation: He has spoken (Heb 1:1-2)

1) God has spoken through His handiwork – Creation

i) A Look Back …

outline derived from acts 17 23 26 esv

Outline derived from … Acts 17:23-26 (ESV)

_________________________________________________

“… as I passed along and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. What therefore you worship as unknown, this I proclaim to you. The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by man, nor is He served by human hands, as though He needed anything, since He Himself gives to all mankind life and breath and everything. And He made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their dwelling place, that they should seek God …”

___________________________________________

________________________________

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God has spoken --A Look Back …

  • OUTLINE
  • History of the Planet Earth
    • Geological and Fossil Record
  • History of the Human Race
    • World Powers
    • Jewish Race
god has spoken a look back at the geological and fossil record
God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

What is the Geological Record?

… the shape and structure of the earth’s surface.

-- Grand Canyon

god has spoken a look back at the geological and fossil record1
God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

Geologists have drawn their own concepts and conclusions …

god has spoken a look back at the geological and fossil record2
God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin took it several steps further …

god has spoken a look back at the geological and fossil record3
God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

What is the Fossil Record?

  • Dictionary Definition: A fossil is … “any hardened remains or traces of plant or animal life of some ‘previous geological age,’ preserved in the earth’s crust.”
  • Petrification: The process of turning organic material into stone by infiltration with water carrying mineral particles.
  • Trace Fossils: marks left behind by an organism (e.g. footprint)
  • Fossil Record: totality of fossils embedded in rock.
  • Paleontology: the study of fossils
  • Fossils: any evidences of “life” preserved in sedimentary rock.
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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

Commonly taught … scientific evidence supports the evolutionary process

… the age of the earth has been proven to be billions of years old.

… to believe in Biblical creation is both unscientific and irrational.

Fact?

or

Fiction?

slide9

God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

  • Neither creation nor evolution can be proven by science.
  • Scientific method involves … making observations … then predictions … and then experiments … to prove or disprove the hypothesis.
  • Scientific method only deals with naturally recurring processes that occur in the present and can be tested with repeatable experiments.
  • Since Evolutionism and Creationism involve the study of ancient history, they are both outside of the scientific method.
  • Therefore …
slide10

God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

  • Since many believe science has proven the age of the earth to be billions of years old, attempts have been made to reconcile Genesis with geology.
  • Various theories have been proposed that accommodate the “facts.”

Gap Creation=a long time gap existed between Gen 1:2 & 1:3 when the earth became formless and void.

Theistic Evolution=God started the process ... then evolution took over.

Progressive Creation=God created along side of evolution (over long ages) (Creation “days” = “ages”)

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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

  • The Dating Dilemma1
  • For 100+ years, geologists have tried to determine the earth’s age. In Darwin’s time the earth was determined to be 100 million years old … 1.6 billion years in 1932 … 3.4 b.y. in 1947 … 4.6 b.y. in 1976.
  • Known dating methods have numerous limitations.
    • Radiocarbon dating, C14, can be used for things that once lived, but with its short half-life, it can only “date” things up to ~50,000 years.
    • Radiometric methods, with long half-lives, can only be used on igneous rocks (solidified from lava), not on the sedimentary rocks that contain the fossils.
    • Radiometric methods can only measure the present rations of radio-active isotopes and their decay rate, not the age.
  • To come up with an age determination, assumptions and extrapolations have to be made. Rely heavily on the assumption of uniformitarianism.
    • Uniformitarianism = natural processes have proceeded at relatively constant rates throughout the earth’s history. Therefore no radical changes have ever taken place in the earth’s atmosphere or radiation decay rates. Thus, the present is the key to the past.
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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

  • The Dating Dilemma1
  • The fact living snails were dated at 2,300 years old and wood growing from trees at 10,000 years old shows the assumptions are not valid.
  • Every known dating test was applied to the same moon rocks and the results varied from 2 million to 28 billion years.
  • CIRCULAR REASONING2
    • World Book Encyclopedia: Under “Fossils” … “Scientists determine when fossils are formed by finding out the ages of the rocks in which they lie.” Under “Paleontology” … “The age of the rocks may be determined by the fossils found in them.”
    • The geological column was built from the fossil record before radioactive dating was introduced. Evolution was assumed.
    • Now the geological column is used to date the fossils found.
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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

  • Creation and evolution are incompatible theories3 …
  • Evolution is a process involving death. Natural selection and survival of the fittest require … death of lower forms of life.
  • The Bible says, “… through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men” (Rom 5:12)
  • Genesis 1 & 2 record a death-free world until Adam falls into sin and God curses the universe. Death, disease, suffering, violence, and bloodshed come at that time and not before.
  • The Fall introduced death, and death introduced the law of thermodynamics, entropy, disintegration, and disorder.
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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

Q: How do we know God created the heavens and the earth?

A:“By faith we understand that the universe was created by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things that are visible.” (Heb 11:3 ESV)

Q: Why then do we need to look back at the historical record?

A: History yields knowledge that is useful, instructive, and available to us.

All knowledge we acquire falls into 1 of 4 categories4 …

Man

Scientific

Narrow (Impersonal)

4

Man

Intuitional

Narrow (Personal)

3

Man

Historical / Evidential

Inclusive

2

God

Revelational

Unifying

1

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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

  • What can we expect from studying these records? 5
  • Rocks don’t talk and fossils aren’t labeled. Thus, they must be interpreted. The creationist and evolutionist will interpret the records based on the framework which they believe to be true.
  • Evolutionists have chosen to interpret the fossils & sediments based on a presupposition of slow accumulation over billions of years (uniformitarianism). They search for transitional forms.
  • Creationists expect to see evidences of rapid formation of rock strata and no transitional forms in the fossil record.
  • The theories are diametrically opposed … cannot both be right.
  • Which theory has the most contradictions with the records?
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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

1. CONTENTS of the Geological Record6 …

  • Sedimentary (water-formed) rocks and structures are prevalent all across the earth\'s surface.
  • Uniform color and band height of the sedimentary rock strata.
  • Lack of erosion between sedimentary rock layers.
  • Lack of biological disturbance (e.g. worms, roots, etc.) in rock strata.
  • 80-85% of the earth’s surface does not have even 3 “geologic periods” appearing in the presumed correct consecutive order.
  • “Older” rocks lying on top of “younger” rocks. (e.g. Matterhorn Mtns)
  • In many locations, there are piles of rocks and boulders right above the rock layers with no signs of life. (Presumably represents “500 million years” of missing earth history.)
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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

1. CONTENTS of the Geological Record …

  • Polystrate fossils (e.g. petrified trees) span several layers of rock strata.
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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

2. CONTENTS of the Fossil Record7 …

  • 95% of the fossil record = shallow marine organisms (e.g. corals & shellfish).
  • 95% of remaining 5% are algae & plant fossils, & invertebrates (e.g. insects).
  • 5% of remaining 5% are vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals)
  • Total number of dinosaur skeletons in public & university museums is ~2,100. Of the 0.25% vertebrate fossil record, only 1% consist of more than one bone.
  • Both fossils of extinct and living animals. But many more fossils of living species than extinct species of animals. Most are similar or the same as species today.
  • Animals appear abruptly, fully formed, and fully functional.
  • Massive fossil graveyards with many different species mixed and clustered together.
  • Fossil graveyards high up in mountainous areas (e.g. top 3000’ of Mt Everest). Including petrified clams in the closed position (buried alive).
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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

3. CONDITIONS for Fossilization8 …

  • Specialized– While billions of fossils exist today, there is no evidence that fossils are being formed today. Fossilization requires specialized conditions.
  • Submersion in water – fossilization occurs when organisms are deposited from water into sediment. Almost all fossils are found in water-laid sediments.
  • Cataclysmic event– In order for fossilization to occur, the burial of the organism and the hardening of the sediment must occur very quickly to seal out oxygen and protect them. Otherwise natural decay or scavengers will destroy them before they can become fossils. The fossils’ very existence requires a cataclysmic event that rapidly entombed them.
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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

4. CONCLUSIONof the Geological and Fossil Records2 …

  • The abrupt appearance of fully formed and functional creatures and the lack of any intermediate creatures between species (missing links) supports creation.
  • The majority of living animal species and minority of extinct animal species indicate not much has changed or evolved over time.
  • Fossil graveyards on the highest mountains indicates water once covered the entire earth.
  • Vertical petrified trees spanning several sedimentary layers indicate a rapid formation of the rock strata, not long ages.
  • Cataclysm, not time, is required for fossilization.
  • Earth’s major geological features and formations indicate a massive universal water cataclysm reshaped its surface.
  • Combined evidence points to the fact that all fossils were formed over a relatively short period of time during and after a world-wide flood.
slide21

God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

Mount St Helens - Flood Model9

  • In 1980, Mt St Helens erupted (Est. 10 megaton blast ~ 20,000 atomic bombs) and sent 18 billion CF (est.) of rock, ash, dirt, steam, and melted snow hurtling down the north side of mountain at 90 mph (est.). The top 1,300’ of mountain was blown away and forests were flattened in a 7 mile radius.
  • The following geological features resulted from this cataclysmic event:

1. Canyons formed in 5 months – Lava flow cut through 100’ of solid rock and formed Step (700’ deep) and Loowit Canyons. Creeks now flow though each.

2. Badlands formed in 5 days – The landslides carried chunks of ice and snow and buried them in the valley. Deposited hot ash caused water to flash to steam and rapid expansion resulted in explosions producing jagged “rill & gully” effect.

3. Layered Strata formed in 3 hours – Wave after wave of pyroclastic flow resulted in 100+ defined layers rather than expected homogenized mixture. The high velocity flow separated the coarse and fine particles.

4. New River Canyon formed in 9 hours – In 1982, backed up water broke through the recently deposited sediment. The Toutle Canyon is 100’ deep and looks like a 1/40th scale model of the Grand Canyon .

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God has spoken -- A Look Back at the Geological and Fossil Record

  • God has spoken through the geological and fossil record.
  • It is a visible witness to the biblical account of creation.
    • The evidence is in keeping with Genesis 1 & 2 and makes our revelational faith in God rational and at the same time, belief in evolution irrational.
  • It is a visible warning of God’s judgment on this earth.
    • God could have destroyed man from the earth (Gen 6:7) by a spoken word, but he devised a method that left a vivid and lasting reminder.
    • World-wide flood was cataclysmic. “The flood (kataklusmos) came and took them all away” (Matt 24:39. Also Matt 24:38; Luke 17:27; 2Pet 2:5).
    • It is a warning that all things have not and will not continue as they are today.
    • “For they deliberately overlook this fact, that the heavens existed long ago, and the earth was formed out of water and through water by the word of God (#1 Creation), and that by means of these the world that then existed was deluged with water and perished (#2 Flood). But by the same word the heavens and earth that now exist are stored up for fire, being kept until the day of judgment and destruction of the ungodly” (2 Peter 3:5-7 ESV).
slide23

God has spoken --A Look Back …

  • OUTLINE
  • History of the Earth
    • Geological and Fossil Record
  • History of the Human Race
    • World Powers
    • Jewish Nation
slide24

God has spoken --A Look Back at World Powers

  • Babylon (605 – 539 BC)10
  • New Babylonian Empire began in 626 BC when military leader Nebopolassar won control of Babylon from the Assyrians.
  • Empire achieved its greatest power and glory under the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar II (605 - 562 BC). Of its ~70 years in existence he ruled 45 years. Empire controlled most of what is now the Middle East.
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God has spoken --A Look Back at World Powers

City of Babylon was unsurpassed in greatness and glory.11

  • Facts from Herodotus:
  • Built in a square, 14 mi per side.
  • Brick wall was 60 mi long, 350’ high, 85’ thick with 2nd wall 75’ behind the 1st wall, and the wall extended 35’ below ground.
  • 250 towers 450’ high.
  • Wide moat encircled the city.
  • Euphrates River flowed (diagonally) through the middle of the city.
  • 8 massive gates led to the inner city and 100 brass gates.
  • Streets paved with stone slabs 3’ square.
  • Great Tower (Ziggurat) and 53 temples including the "Great Temple of Marduk.“

• Hanging Gardens (1 of the 7 wonders of the ancient world) -- water was raised from the river by hydraulic pumps.

slide26

God has spoken --A Look Back at World Powers

  • Medo-Persia (539 – 331 BC)12
  • Led by King Cyrus, the combined armies of the Medes and Persians marched toward the impregnable city of Babylon.
    • History says … Along the way, they came upon the Gyndes River which had to be crossed by boat. One of Cyrus’ sacred white horses tried to cross and was swept away to its death. Enraged, Cyrus ordered his men to drain the river dry. Over the whole summer they dug 360 channels that led off in all directions. They eventually crossed the river on dry land. However, the time spent in this effort forced them to winter there.
  • Cyrus proceeded to lay siege to the city but was stymied by it’s massive walls and gates.
  • While the city partied inside the walls, Cyrus plotted outside. A strategy was still fresh in his mind.
  • Cyrus ordered his men to reroute the waters of the Euphrates River. They proceeded to march under the brass gates and into the unsuspecting and unguarded city.
slide27

God has spoken --A Look Back at World Powers

  • Medo-Persia (539 – 331 BC)10
  • Cyrus defeated the Babylonians and established the Medo-Persia Empire as the next great world power.
slide28

God has spoken --A Look Back at World Powers

  • Greece(331 – 30 BC)10,13
  • In 331 BC, a 25 year-old general named Alexander defeated the Medo-Persian king Darius at the battle of Arbela.
  • Alexander the Great proceeded to conquer the world in 8 years.
    • History says … Alexander went on a wild drinking binge at the funeral of one of his best friends, Hephaestion. He drank the huge cup of Hercules twice and contracted a fever. He died at the young age of 33.
slide29

God has spoken --A Look Back at World Powers

  • Greece(331 – 30 BC)10,13
  • After his death, the empire was divided among his 4 generals: Lysimachus, Ptolemy, Seleucus, and Cassander.
  • Over 40 years of struggles and warfare (323-280 BC) followed before 2 major dynasties emerged: the Ptolemies in Egypt, and the Seleucids in Asia, Asia Minor, and Palestine.
  • The Seleucid Empire
  • was the largest & lasted
  • until ~64 BC.
  • The Ptolemy Empire
  • was the richest & lasted
  • until ~30 BC.
slide30

God has spoken --A Look Back at World Powers

  • Rome (30 BC – AD 476)
  • In 168 BC, Rome defeated Macedonia at the battle of Pydna. Marked the beginning of the true power of Rome.
  • In 146 BC, Rome destroyed Corinth and conquered Greece.
  • In 47 BC, Julius Caesar defeated Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII.
  • In 30 BC, Egypt is annexed to Rome and the world-wide reign of the Roman Empire officially began.
  • In AD 330, the emperor Constantine moved Rome’s capital to Constantinople, effectively splitting the empire into 2 factions: Western Rome and Eastern Rome (Byzantine).
slide32

God has spoken --A Look Back at World Powers

  • And so …
  • History books focus on …
    • Nebuchadnezzar\'s architectural accomplishments
    • Cyrus the Great’s cultural accomplishments
    • Alexander the Great’s military strategy & triumphs
    • Julius Caesar’s political accomplishments
  • But the focus should be on …
    • God foretold the rise and fall of these world powers over this ~1000 year period before it happened!

the Great men …

a Great God …

slide33

GENTILE WORLD HISTORY FORETOLD IN DANIEL 2 & 7

Prophecy14Fulfillment

  • Babylonian Empire
  • Swift conquest
  • Superior kingdom
  • No divisions
  • 70 year captivity of Jews
  • Conquered by Medo-Persia

605 BC King Nebuchadnezzar attacks Jerusalem

70yearcaptivityofJudahbegins(1stwave)

597 BC Nebuchadnezzar’s 2nd attack on Jerusalem

2nd wave of deportation (2Kings 24)

586 BC Jerusalem leveled & destroyed with fire / 3rd & final wave of deportation (2Kings 25).

  • Medo-Persian Empire
  • Swift conquest
  • Inferior to Babylon
  • 2 divisions (2nd stronger)
  • Conquers 3 powers
  • Conquered by Eastern power

547 BC King Cyrus defeats Croesus of Lydia (1)

539 BC Cyrus defeats Belshazzar of Babylon (2)

538 BC Cyrus defeats Egypt (3)

Israel returns from captivity (1st Wave)

525 BC Israel returns from captivity (2nd Wave)

424 BCOld Testament period ends (Neh 13:4-30)

  • Greek Empire
  • Swift conquest
  • 1 strong ruler, broken early
  • Kingdom divided into 4
  • 2 dominant kingdoms emerge (North & South)

331 BC Alexander defeats Darius III of Persia

323 BC Alexander dies (age 33) & the kingdom is divided among his generals

301 BC Coalition of 4 leaders take control & divide into 4 (Turkey / Egypt / Syria / Greece)

281 BC Kingdomdivided into 2 (Seleucid / Ptolemy)

  • Roman Empire
  • Brutal military kingdom
  • Strength & invincibility
  • Messiah born during reign
  • Branches into 2 “legs”

149 BC Rome conquers Greece (Battle of Corinth)

63 BC Judea becomes a Roman province

30 BC Roman Empire established (Pax Romana)

26 BCNew Testament period begins (Lk 1:5-25)

4 BC Birth of Jesus

AD 330 Constantine divides empire: East and West

  • Revived 10-nation confederacy
slide34

God has spoken --A Look Back at Human History

The rationalist Prussian King Frederick the Great asked his Bible-believing chaplain, … "In a word, give me a good argument for the God of the Bible."

His chaplain responded, "The Jew, your Majesty!“14

slide35

God has spoken --A Look Back at Jewish History

The history of the Jewish race demonstrates …

DIVINE…

Purpose

Protection

Preservation

Punishment

Promise

Prophecy

slide36

God has spoken --A Look Back at Jewish History

  • DIVINE PURPOSE …
  • History of Israel begins with God\'s covenant with Abraham ~2000 BC.
  • God stated His purpose for choosing Israel in Gen 12:2-3 … “I will make you a great nation; I will bless you and make your name great; and you will be a blessing … and in you all the families of the earth shall be blessed.”
  • Israel was never intended to be the sole recipient of God\'s blessings, but rather, a channel for God\'s blessings to flow to all mankind.
  • Chosen to be a witness for God (Isa 43:10) … a living object lesson to surrounding nations of God’s absolute power and uniqueness.
  • Chosen to display the blessings of God (Isa 49:3)
  • Chosen to be a repository for the word of God (Isa 42:9)
  • Chosen to be a channel for the Messiah (Gen 49:10; Isa 49:6)
slide37

God has spoken --A Look Back at Jewish History

  • DIVINE PROTECTION …
  • Genesis records the early stages of Israel’s development, but by the end of the book they appear to be hopelessly enslaved in Egypt.
  • But an incredible series of miraculous events follow, whereby God delivers two million inept Israelites out of Egypt in the Exodus.
  • When they left Egypt, they did not go alone …
  • Pillar of cloud and fire represented God\'s presence and protection.
  • Divine protection extended from leaving Egypt, through the Red Sea, through the 40 years in the desert, through the Jordan River, and into their possession of the Promised Land.
  • “Behold, I send an Angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you into the place which I have prepared” (Exodus 23:20)

The Lord went before them in a pillar of cloud by day, and a pillar of fire by night.

slide38

God has spoken --A Look Back at Jewish History

  • DIVINE PROMISE …
  • Leviticus 26 is God’s covenant promise to Israel. God gave them a roadmap up front. If you follow My route, this is where it will lead (blessing), if you follow your route, this is where it will lead (cursing).
  • “If you walk in My statutes and keep My commandments, and perform them, then will I give you… rain … produce … fruit … vintage … safety … peace … victory … fruitfulness … numbers …I will walk among you and be your God, and you will be My people” (Lev 26:3-12).
  • “But if you do not obey Me, & do not observe all these commandments, and if you despise My statutes … I also will do this to you… appoint terror … disease … fever … defeat … bondage … barrenness … famine … desolation … dispersion …”(Lev 26:14-39).
  • Recovery Route: “But if they confess their iniquity … I will remember My covenant … I will not cast them away, nor shall I abhor them, to utterly destroy them and break My covenant with them; for I am the Lord their God …” (Lev 26:40-46).
slide39

God has spoken --A Look Back at Jewish History

  • DIVINE PROPHECY16 …
  • Not only did God give a roadmap, but He foretold their destination.
  • God revealed their …
    • DESTRUCTION – Lev 26:31-32 Their land would be inhabited by their enemies … Deut 29:23 Israel would become a wasteland … Deut 31:16-17 Israel would face many disasters and difficulties
    • EXILE – Deut 4:25-30 Jews’ worldwide persecution & scattering … Deut 28:36-37 Israel would be exiled, scorned and ridiculed … Hosea 9:17 Israel would be like wanderers in other nations
    • DISPERSION – Deut 28:64 Israel would be scattered worldwide … Deut 28:65-67 Israel would be persecuted in many nations … Eze22:14-15 The Jews would be scattered to other countries
slide40

God has spoken --A Look Back at Jewish History

  • DIVINE PUNISHMENT …
  • True to His word, God carried out His promises, & prophecy was fulfilled.
  • Israel\'s history demonstrates that when they broke God’s laws, they experienced exactly the results God predicted would happen.
  • Assyrians conquered northern kingdom of Israel in 722 BC. Babylonians conquered southern kingdom of Judah & destroyed Jerusalem in 586 BC. Jerusalem & Temple were rebuilt but destroyed again by Romans 70 AD. Romans again attacked and destroyed Jerusalem in 135 AD.
  • The Jews’ worldwide scattering began when Romans exiled them from Jerusalem and surrounding area from 70 AD to 135 AD. Jews moved into Europe & Middle East. Intense persecutions during the past 19 centuries decimated their numbers and drove the rest all over the world.
slide41

God has spoken --A Look Back at Jewish History

  • DIVINE PRESERVATION …
  • God also promised He would never allow people to completely destroy the Jews -- Lev 26:44. Jews will never be completely destroyed … Isa 49:13-18. God will never forget Israel … Isa 66:22. God would preserve the Jews … Jer 31:35-36. Israel will never cease to be a nation of people … Zech 8:13. Israel would be persecuted, but preserved.
  • Israel would have been exterminated if it had not been for the preserving power of God. No other nation has experienced such disaster. Most nations have not survived long enough … they rose, played their part, and passed on. But Israel, as the chosen of God, is indestructible and has survived through 4000 years.
slide42

God has spoken --A Look Back at Human History

  • History Lessons
  • History declares God to be God: “I am the first and the last; besides Me there is no god. Who is like Me? Let him proclaim it. Let him declare and set it before Me, since I appointed an ancient people. Let them declare what is to come, and what willhappen … Have I not told you from of old and declared it? And you are My witnesses…” (Isa 44:6-8 ESV).
  • History declares God to be incontrol. God’s hand is always present in human history. History is the outworking of God’s purposes through men and nations. Since God is in control of everything, then history is not random events but a controlled process leading to a final destination.
references
References

1 From “The Dating Game”, by David N. Menton, Ph.D. (http://www.gennet.org/facts/metro14.html)

2 From “Does the Fossil Record Prove Evolution?” by Noel Chartier (http://accordingtothescriptures.org/creation/fossilrecord1.html?do=add)

  • From “Creation: Believe it or not--Part 2”, John Macarthur, (http://www.biblebb.com/files/MAC/90-209.htm)
  • Table from “What is Science?”, Tim Nordgren (http://www.thingsrevealed.net/science1.htm)
  • From “Contrasting Views of Reality” by Bruce Malone (http://www.creationscienceevangelism.org/articles.php?spec=23)
  • From “How accurate are Carbon-14 and other radioactive dating methods?”

(http://www.christiananswers.net/q-aig/aig-c007.html)

  • From “Where are all the human fossils?” by Andrew A. Snelling (http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v14/i1/humanfossils.asp)
  • From “What Do the Fossils Say?” David N. Menton, Ph.D., (http://www.gennet.org/facts/metro11.html)
  • From From "7 Wonders of Mount St. Helens (MSH)" by Lloyd & Doris Anderson (http://www.creationism.org/sthelens/MSH1b_7wonders.htm)
  • Map from http://www.teachinghearts.org/dre00maps.html
  • From “Ancient Babylonia - Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylon” (http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/ BabyloniaNebuchadnezzars_Babylon.htm)
  • From “Cyrus takes Babylon: Herodotus” (http://www.livius.org/ct-cz/cyrus_I/babylon07.html)
  • From “Dwelling Place of the Father\'s Seal” by Pete Kovacs (http://www.champs-of-truth.com/books/house/chapter_2.htm)
  • From “Bible Prophecy - History of the Empires” (http://teachinghearts.org/dre04histempires.html)
  • From “Israel\'s History Written in Advance” by Robert C. Newman / Rich Milne (http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/probe/docs/jews.html)
  • From “Bible Prophecies” by George Konig (http://www.aboutbibleprophecy.com)
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