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February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.. . . . Outline of Briefing. Introduction and ContextUSAID Approach to Gender Analysis and Gender Integration in ProgrammingIntegrating Gender--Where we are in the ProcessKey Issues IdentifiedPreliminary Recommendations. . Fe

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1. USAID/Mozambique Gender Analysis of Tourism Sector: De-Brief and Preliminary Recommendations DevTech Systems, Inc. Maputo, February 18, 2005 Assessment Team: Virginia Lambert, IBM Jim McNicholas, DevTech Systems, Inc. Edda Collier, Maputo Introduce team and mechanism. Thank you to Jim for photos from Niassa Province. Purpose of consultancy – tourism sector and project design Gender: the economic, social, political and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female.Introduce team and mechanism. Thank you to Jim for photos from Niassa Province. Purpose of consultancy – tourism sector and project design Gender: the economic, social, political and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female.

2. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. [Ginny] Introduction: SOW and Objectives Brief Summary of Activities Conducted: Niassa (Caveat on the application findings for Cabo and Nampula—e.g. follow-up analysis required) Key Meetings: Turismo, Labor, Education, Donor Coordinating Group-Gender Focal, Foro Mulher, CTA, Novo Banco Gender: the economic, social, political and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female.[Ginny] Introduction: SOW and Objectives Brief Summary of Activities Conducted: Niassa (Caveat on the application findings for Cabo and Nampula—e.g. follow-up analysis required) Key Meetings: Turismo, Labor, Education, Donor Coordinating Group-Gender Focal, Foro Mulher, CTA, Novo Banco Gender: the economic, social, political and cultural attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female.

3. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Gender Analysis conducted for Country Strategic Plan SO7 Action Plan: Promote self-regulation at the association level to ensure minimum labor standards applied Ensure statistics on employment creation are disaggregated by sex and systematic monitoring conducted Carry out policy research on liberalization measures that support gender equality [Edda][Edda]

4. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. [Ginny] Discuss also: Gender Definition Introduce Significance of opportunities in Tourism for women; and also the need to be careful about assumptions in the program design…to be discussed under the key issues identified. Las Preguntas Claves ADS SLIDE 4- (Technical Analysis for Strategic Plans ADS 201.3.4.13)  El análisis de género es un componente obligatorio del análisis técnico realizado en planificación estratégica y desarrollo de un marco de resultados. ¿Cómo afectarán las relaciones de género al logro de resultados sostenibles?   ¿Cómo afectarán los resultados propuestos al status relativo de las mujeres?     Para documentar y analizar las diferencias y desigualdades de género que puedan afectar el impacto del programa el ADS incentiva a los equipos de Objetivo estrategico que consulten a individuos y grupos expertos en trabajar la perspectiva de género. Estos equipos tambien son responsables de responder a esta logica en los hipoteses de desarrollo, objetivos estrategicos, reultados intermediosy actividades diseñadas para lograr los resultados.[Ginny] Discuss also: Gender Definition Introduce Significance of opportunities in Tourism for women; and also the need to be careful about assumptions in the program design…to be discussed under the key issues identified. Las Preguntas Claves ADS SLIDE 4- (Technical Analysis for Strategic Plans ADS 201.3.4.13)  El análisis de género es un componente obligatorio del análisis técnico realizado en planificación estratégica y desarrollo de un marco de resultados. ¿Cómo afectarán las relaciones de género al logro de resultados sostenibles?   ¿Cómo afectarán los resultados propuestos al status relativo de las mujeres?     Para documentar y analizar las diferencias y desigualdades de género que puedan afectar el impacto del programa el ADS incentiva a los equipos de Objetivo estrategico que consulten a individuos y grupos expertos en trabajar la perspectiva de género. Estos equipos tambien son responsables de responder a esta logica en los hipoteses de desarrollo, objetivos estrategicos, reultados intermediosy actividades diseñadas para lograr los resultados.

5. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Gender Integration— Where we are in the Process [Jim] Discuss: This is early for specific gender interventions in the design. BUT Note Interest that USAID is considering these issues that this early stage. Opportunities do exist. Some areas may not be directly relevant to final program design. [Jim] Discuss: This is early for specific gender interventions in the design. BUT Note Interest that USAID is considering these issues that this early stage. Opportunities do exist. Some areas may not be directly relevant to final program design.

6. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. National Overview: Illiteracy: 69% Female 38% Male Enrollment secondary (8-10) 29% Female 71% Male Maternal mortality: 1500/150,000 Northern provinces: Illiteracy: 86.2 % Female 56.3% Male Current Policy Context: Commitment of Government Policy Framework; New Family Law (2003) Existing Resources and Initiatives [Edda] Data on key figures AND/OR Also discuss here: Commitment of GovMoz Policy Framework; new Family Law (2003) Existing resources: Forum mulher, Women’s lawyers Ass?, EU Project etc.[Edda] Data on key figures AND/OR Also discuss here: Commitment of GovMoz Policy Framework; new Family Law (2003) Existing resources: Forum mulher, Women’s lawyers Ass?, EU Project etc.

7. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Priority Gender Issues Identified Income Generation Direct Employment in Tourism Sector Indirect Employment through Linkages Tools and Interventions to Promote Entrepreneurialism and Business Development Potential Negative Linkages/Illegal Activities Infrastructure Community Based Resource Management Policy Implications [Jim] Introduces key areas… …with focus gender constraints and impact on women[Jim] Introduces key areas… …with focus gender constraints and impact on women

8. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Direct Employment Opportunities in Tourism in Northern Provinces International Experience: Tourism is significant employment generator (men and women) Higher percentage of women employed than in broader economy Opportunity for women to advance in sector Possible Constraints in Northern Mozambique: Cultural Constraints Labor Availability of Women: Gender Roles in Household Education and Training Gap Level of entry and types of jobs Labor Law [Ginny] Definition: Direct Employment Opportunities: Hotels, Restaurants, Guides Services etc. International Experience: Tourism is significant employment generator Higher percentage of women employed than other sectors and in economy as a whole (46% women globally—see text below) Opportunity for women to move up in the business Possible Constraints in Northern Mozambique Cultural Constraints: Acceptance of women working. E.g. Niassa—Some men do not accept. Self-esteem of women. Women have no experience working for cash. Availability Of Women: Women’s primary role on machamba, caring for household. Education: Fundamental Literacy gap. Level of Entry and types of jobs: potential to follow international pattern (see text below) Labor Law—In discussions regarding constraints; the Labor Law is specifically mentioned by most interviewees..To be discussed under Policy later. “Globally, as a percentage of the total workforce, employment for women ranks higher in the tourism sector (46%) than the general labor force and women’s participation increased during the 1990s.[i] While women’s participation varies substantially between countries, tourism sector development offers significant employment opportunities both men and women. Qualitative differences, however, exist regarding the type of work generated and the benefits received by men and women, in terms of the classes of jobs, the total numbers of hours worked, and wage levels. Recent studies indicate that in many cases women fill low-skilled positions,[i] work fewer hours in the formal economy, have less tenured positions and lower job security,[ii] and receive a lower percentage of revenue than their participation rates would indicate.[iii] As new opportunities open, targeting recruitment efforts, ensuring that both men and women receive training, identifying specific cultural constraints for women, and paying attention to promotion patterns may help defer these negative impacts. Sex disaggregated data on new employment are needed to track these effects. [i] Williams, Mariama. 2002. “The Political Economy of Tourism liberalization, Gender and the GATS” International Gender and Trade Network – Secretariat April 2002. [ii] UNED, 1999. [iii] SNV Netherlands Development Organization 2003. “Background Paper: SNV and Sustainable Tourism.” [i] United Nations Environment and Development-UK Committee. 1999. “Gender & Tourism: Women's Employment and Participation in Tourism” http://www.earthsummit2002.org/toolkits/women/current/gendertourismrep.htm [Ginny] Definition: Direct Employment Opportunities: Hotels, Restaurants, Guides Services etc. International Experience: Tourism is significant employment generator Higher percentage of women employed than other sectors and in economy as a whole (46% women globally—see text below) Opportunity for women to move up in the business Possible Constraints in Northern Mozambique Cultural Constraints: Acceptance of women working. E.g. Niassa—Some men do not accept. Self-esteem of women. Women have no experience working for cash. Availability Of Women: Women’s primary role on machamba, caring for household. Education: Fundamental Literacy gap. Level of Entry and types of jobs: potential to follow international pattern (see text below) Labor Law—In discussions regarding constraints; the Labor Law is specifically mentioned by most interviewees..To be discussed under Policy later. “Globally, as a percentage of the total workforce, employment for women ranks higher in the tourism sector (46%) than the general labor force and women’s participation increased during the 1990s.[i] While women’s participation varies substantially between countries, tourism sector development offers significant employment opportunities both men and women.

9. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Indirect Employment Opportunities through Market Linkages Agricultural Production to Tourism Market Artisan products and crafts Goods and Services Cultural Products [This links to next two slides…an example for the 2 Gender Analysis Questions and related interventions for Bus. Development] Opportunities for both men and women; but some of these offer specific opportunites to engage women in tourism market Agricultural Production to Tourism Market: Don Hawkins: Ag. Linkage currently not done well. WB investigating. As primary actors in agriculture, Large opportunity for women in some places. horticulture Would require transition extension services, training, Bus Dev. Training Requires real market demand; i.e. this is longer term goal. Credit difficult currently: E.g. Novo Banco does not offer for Agri.. Artisan products and crafts: Good opportunity to link traditional and new activities to market. Goods and Services: Potential (TechnoServe): Bakery, Shops, Speciality: Face crème/paint,, Cultural Products Dance Groups Cultural Interpretation—Community Based Tourism [This links to next two slides…an example for the 2 Gender Analysis Questions and related interventions for Bus. Development] Opportunities for both men and women; but some of these offer specific opportunites to engage women in tourism market Agricultural Production to Tourism Market: Don Hawkins: Ag. Linkage currently not done well. WB investigating. As primary actors in agriculture, Large opportunity for women in some places. horticulture Would require transition extension services, training, Bus Dev. Training Requires real market demand; i.e. this is longer term goal. Credit difficult currently: E.g. Novo Banco does not offer for Agri.. Artisan products and crafts: Good opportunity to link traditional and new activities to market. Goods and Services: Potential (TechnoServe): Bakery, Shops, Speciality: Face crème/paint,, Cultural Products Dance Groups Cultural Interpretation—Community Based Tourism

10. Example: Analysis Required: Cannot assume that Women are the craftmakers. Niassa: men are primary actors in Wood carving, although women do play a role in sanding and polishing. Interventions need to address both women focused crafts; and women’s relative power/role within existing economic activities.Example: Analysis Required: Cannot assume that Women are the craftmakers. Niassa: men are primary actors in Wood carving, although women do play a role in sanding and polishing. Interventions need to address both women focused crafts; and women’s relative power/role within existing economic activities.

11. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Tools and Interventions for Employment and SME Development Information Dissemination and Promotion of Tourism as Economic Value Training: On the job and Bus. Development Skills Credit and Financial Services Monitoring of Women’s Participation: Quantitative—recruitment and promotion Qualitative Information and Tourism promotion Access to Information: can be a specific Gender-based Constraint: Women do not have same access to information. Women’s contributions (eg dance, crafts, etc.) must be valued and women must have safe environemtn to ply trade. 2. Technical and Bus Dev skills 3. Credit: 4. Monitoring of Women’s Participation Information and Tourism promotion Access to Information: can be a specific Gender-based Constraint: Women do not have same access to information. Women’s contributions (eg dance, crafts, etc.) must be valued and women must have safe environemtn to ply trade. 2. Technical and Bus Dev skills 3. Credit: 4. Monitoring of Women’s Participation

12. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Potential Negative Linkages/ Illegal Activities Potential Negative Linkages Prostitution HIV/AIDS Opportunity to integrate HIV, legal enforcement, and gender awareness training into programmatic and tourism promotion trainings

13. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Infrastructure Positive Linkages Infrastructure: Health and Transport Linked to Health Programs: e.g. Malaria, HIV

14. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Example. Metangula: Bridge built by investors to open road for construction. Infrastructure: Opportunity to benefit women and children: Access to health services. Access to market Access to school Example. Metangula: Bridge built by investors to open road for construction. Infrastructure: Opportunity to benefit women and children: Access to health services. Access to market Access to school

15. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Community-based Natural Resource Management and Decision-making Achieving objectives of tourism investments will be affected by relationship with community. Gender roles in resource management need to be understood. Distribution of benefits in community: engage women actively in participation in community negotiation of trade-offs and benefits Long-term process: part of enabling environment for protected area management plans. [Jim] 1. At some level, success of tourism will be affected by community relations. Positive relations can bring additional attraction as tourism product. Negative relations? vandalism, theft. Conversely, tourism will affect gender relations within communities. 2. Eg Lake Niassa: women collect wood. Men fish. Changes to these behaviours should engage both. Can be used as an opportunity to actively engage women. 3. Access to resources and benefits from tourism activities and the power to take decisions over resource use will influence the achievement of program objectives and the relative status of men and women in local communities. WWF experience: this is a long term process—3-5 year process. Incidentally—high profile issue right now for Conservation Orgs. [Jim] 1. At some level, success of tourism will be affected by community relations. Positive relations can bring additional attraction as tourism product. Negative relations? vandalism, theft. Conversely, tourism will affect gender relations within communities. 2. Eg Lake Niassa: women collect wood. Men fish. Changes to these behaviours should engage both. Can be used as an opportunity to actively engage women. 3. Access to resources and benefits from tourism activities and the power to take decisions over resource use will influence the achievement of program objectives and the relative status of men and women in local communities. WWF experience: this is a long term process—3-5 year process. Incidentally—high profile issue right now for Conservation Orgs.

16. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Policy Implications PARPA II Land Law Labor Law Reform Dissemination of information and promotion of enforcement of existing laws required for provinces Ensuring entrepreneurs, lawyers, policy review includes credible advocate for gender issues

17. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc. Summary of Preliminary Recommendations Monitoring and Evaluation Staffing and Training Site-level: On-site analysis of gender roles and distribution of benefits and impacts on communities Ensure credible gender advocate participates in the development of policy enabling environment Establish benchmarks for attention to gender in activities and ensure self-regulation with partners Establish benchmarks for attention to gender in activities and ensure self-regulation with partners

18. February 2005 DevTech Systems, Inc.

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