Mental Health Training Curriculum
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Mental Health Training Curriculum for Juvenile Justice Module 2: The Interface between the Juvenile Justice and Mental Health Systems. 2-1. Objectives. At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to describe

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Mental Health Training Curriculum for Juvenile JusticeModule 2: The Interface between the Juvenile Justiceand Mental Health Systems

2-1


Objectives

Objectives

At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to describe

the history and purpose of the juvenile justice and mental health systems and how these impact the current situation;

the pathways into each system;

the current relationship between the systems; and

local/state systems and how they intersect.

2-2


Juvenile justice a national perspective

Juvenile Justice:A National Perspective

2-3


Brief history of the juvenile justice system

Brief History of the Juvenile Justice System

  • First juvenile court created in 1899 in Chicago

  • Gerald Gault (1967) - The Supreme Court required that minors receive the right

    • to notification of the charges;

    • to obtain legal counsel;

    • to confront and cross-examine witnesses; and

    • against self-incrimination.

2-4


Brief history of the juvenile justice system ojjdp

Brief History of the Juvenile Justice System: OJJDP

1974 – Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

  • Created the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)

  • Created the Runaway Youth Program

  • Removed status offenders from secure detention

  • Prohibited the placement of juveniles in institutions where they would have regular contact with criminal adults

2-5


Brief history of the juvenile justice system barj

Brief History of the Juvenile Justice System: BARJ

1990s – Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ)

  • A project funded by OJJDP using the principles of

    • accountability,

    • community safety, and

    • competency development

2-6


Brief history of the juvenile justice system juvenile superpredator myth

Brief History of the Juvenile Justice System: Juvenile Superpredator Myth

A few researchers began warning about the rise of “juvenile superpredators” who were growing up in the inner cities.

This resulted in legislation trying juveniles as adults and giving less discretion to police officers and juvenile judges.

But, the superpredators never developed.

2-7


Brief history of the juvenile justice system shifting pendulum

Brief History of the Juvenile Justice System: Shifting Pendulum

Roper v. Simmons (2005)

Graham v. Florida (2010)

Miller v. Alabama (2012)

Youth may do terrible things, but they are less culpable than adults.

Court cites research on adolescence and brain development.

2-8


Goals and responsibilities of the juvenile justice system

Goals and Responsibilitiesof the Juvenile Justice System

  • Rehabilitation

  • Public safety

  • Incarceration

  • Deterrence

  • Development of pro-social behavior and skills

2-9


Pathways into the juvenile justice system

Pathways into the Juvenile Justice System

2-10


Inside the juvenile justice system

Inside the Juvenile Justice System

Juvenile Court Process

Arrest

Intake

Detention

Trial or Plea Bargain

Disposition

2-11


Mental health treatment system a national perspective

Mental Health Treatment System:A National Perspective

2-12


Significant events in the development of the children s mental health treatment system

Significant Events in the Development of the Children’s Mental Health Treatment System

  • 1960s and ‘70s – Deinstitutionalization of mental health

  • 1980s

    • Federal government creates a community-based children’s mental health infrastructure in all states

    • Establishment of the Federation of Families

  • 1999: Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General

  • 2003: New Freedom Commission on Mental Health’s report

  • 2-13


    Goals and responsibilities of the mental health treatment system

    Goals and Responsibilities of the Mental Health Treatment System

    • Promoting recovery

    • Building strengths, resilience

    • Providing available and accessible individualized treatment services

    • Reducing symptoms

    • Improving family relations, school performance, and residential stability

    2-14


    Pathways into the mental health system

    Pathways into the Mental Health System

    2-15


    The interface between the two systems

    The Interface between the Two Systems

    2-16


    Resulting relationship between the systems

    Resulting Relationship between the Systems

    Mental health “is the number one emergent issue as far as juvenile justice is concerned.”

    (Coalition for Juvenile Justice, 2000)

    “In effect, our jails and prisons are now our largest psychiatric facilities….”

    (Bell & Shem, 2002)

    “As a shrinking public health care system limits access to services, many poor and racial or ethnic minority youth with serious disorders fall through the cracks into the juvenile justice system.”

    (New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 2003)

    2-17


    Result of the relationship between the systems

    Result of the Relationship between the Systems

    Mental health services in the juvenile justice system are often inadequate or unavailable.

    25% of all juvenile detention centers reported providing no or poor mental health treatment for youth.

    (United States House of Representatives, 2004)

    A series of investigations of juvenile detention and correctional facilities has documented inadequate clinical services, inappropriate use of medications, and lack of staff training.

    (United States Department of Justice, 2005)

    2-18


    Perceived barriers to treatment

    Perceived Barriers to Treatment

    Youth in detention who have mental health needs identified the following barriers to obtaining community-based treatment:

    • the belief that the problem would just go away

    • uncertainty about where to access services

    • too difficult to access services

      (Abram, et al., 2008)

    2-19


    Yet there exists empirically supported recognition that

    Yet, there exists empirically supported recognition that . . .

    youth are better served in the community.

    effective treatment is available.

    2-20


    The systems from a local perspective

    The Systemsfrom a Local Perspective

    2-21


    Significant changes in the local juvenile justice system

    Significant Changes in theLocal Juvenile Justice System

    [Think of changes in the local system. Some of these changes may mirror the national changes, which is worth noting.

    Some changes may be the product of legal action against the state.]

    2-22


    Significant changes in the local mental health system

    Significant Changes in theLocal Mental Health System

    [Think of changes in the local system. Some of these changes may mirror the national changes, which is worth noting.

    Some changes may be the product of legal action against the state.]

    2-23


    Local response

    Local Response

    • How have systems changed to work together more effectively?

    • [Think of this as the nexus of the two system slides on the local level and include

      • examples of how the impact of the issues raised on the local JJ and MH slides have been addressed and

      • unforeseen problems resulting from items mentioned on the local MH and JJ slides that need to be or have been addressed.]

    2-24


    Next steps

    Next Steps

    • What additional interface between the mental health and juvenile justice systems would you like to see developed?

    • How would that increase your job satisfaction?

    • How would that be better for youth involved in the juvenile justice system?

    2-25


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