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Review of all interwar leaders . Communists and Fascists of the 20 th Century. Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin took over Russia Led from 1917-1924. How did Lenin get back to Russia after being exiled?

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review of all interwar leaders

Review of all interwar leaders

Communists and Fascists of the 20th Century


How did Lenin get back to Russia after being exiled?

  • Provisional Government (led by Kerensky) wanted an end to the war but was not willing to give into Germany’s demands and could not get Allied support that he needed.
      • Instead focused on a defensive war
      • Germany reacts by sending in more political dissenters (like Lenin) to support the Bolsheviks
        • During power Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which with withdraw Russia from WWI and give western lands to Germany
russian revolution 1917

Russian Revolution- 1917

February/March Revolution

A temporary (or provisional) government takes over.

October/November Revolution

Lenin overthrows the temporary government and takes over as the leader of Russia


Some changes that Lenin made:

  • Redistributed farmland
  • Moved the capital
  • Took control of banks and industry
  • Established Soviets (like unions) to discuss worker’s rights
  • Used propaganda and a secret police to keep loyalty

Lenin started the New Economic Policy to try to change the economy-Allows for some foreign trade and private business -Moves away from strict communism towards modified capitalism




In office: 1922-1953


leader in 1928

joseph stalin
  • Born: IosebBesarionisdzeJughashvili
    • Changed name to Stalin = Man of Steel
  • 1928 in total control of Communist Party
Leon Trotsky
    • Stalin’s political competitor
    • He was forced into exile (in Mexico) by Stalin so that he could not be a threat
      • In 1940 Stalin’s agents killed him in Mexico with an ice pick.
  • A government that takes total control over EVERY aspect of public & private life.
  • Command Economy—the government make all economic decisions.
problems for the ussr

Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR)

    • By 1921 decreasing industry
      • Russia was 50-100 years behind industrialized countries (like Britain and Germany) and if the Soviet Union did not catch up they would be conquered!
    • Low agricultural output
      • Ukrainian Famine
        • created by the government to crush Ukrainian nationalist
        • killed 5 million people!
Problems for the USSR
five year plans 1928 32 1933 37
Five Year Plans(1928-32, 1933-37)
  • 5 year plans
    • High quotas to increase steel, coal, oil & electricity
      • It worked, industrial output skyrocketed
      • But government limited production of consumer goods to meet quotas
        • = Shortages in housing, food, clothing
another solution collective farming
Another solution…Collective Farming
  • USSR seized 25 million farms
    • Combined them into collective farms
      • 100’s of families were living in one large farm
    • No privacy, easier for government to control
    • 5-10 million died
  • Kulaks (wealthy peasants) resisted (They were executed)
weapons of totalitarianism used by stalin to fix russia and keep control
Weapons of Totalitarianismused by Stalin to fix Russia and keep control
  • Police Terror
    • Secret police arrested & executed MILLIONS of so-called traitors
    • Gulags-Hard labor camps in Siberia
weapons of totalitarianism
Weapons of Totalitarianism

2. Great Purges

  • Eliminate anyone who threatened Stalin’s power
  • Showed fake “Court Trials” to trick the public into thinking things were fair and necessary
    • Killed 8-13 millions people by 1939
      • It is estimated that about 25 million were killed during Stalin’s rule!
more weapons of totalitarianism
More Weapons of Totalitarianism

3. Censorship & Propaganda

  • Communist Newspaper
  • Socialist Realism (art)
    • Artistic style that praised Soviet life & Communist Values

4. Religious Persecution

  • Religion was labeled the “opium of the masses” and banned
    • Stalin had statues erected of himself, he became like a god to the people
  • Churches=Museums of Atheism
il duce

Il Duce

Mussolini’s Rise to Power

what was italy like during the 1920s 1930s
What was Italy like during the 1920s & 1930s?

Democracies had been weakened by WWI and Great Depression

Many workers are crippled by WWI or unemployed

Italy feels cheated by Versailles Treaty

Many businessmen are worried about the communists seizing power

Led by a King-Victor Emmanuel III

who was benito mussolini
Who was Benito Mussolini?

Son of a Communist blacksmith and a school teacher

Named after Mexican Revolutionary

  • Communist Newspaper editor
  • Good student but unable to stay in school due to his violence
  • WWI veteran (wounded himself with a hand grenade)
  • Mussolini was a politician who founded the Fascist Party in 1919
what is fascism
What is Fascism?
  • Fascism:
    • Political Party that advocates:
        • totalitarianism
        • extreme Nationalism
        • the State is more important than the individual
            • but doesn’t call for state ownership of property
fascism emphasizes

Action over thinking

  • Community spirit/Nationalism
  • Militarism
  • The future
  • One political party
  • Violence
Fascism emphasizes:
what changes did mussolini promise
What changes did Mussolini promise?:

He promised :

1. To revive the economy and rebuild the Armed Forces

Wanted to rebuild Italy into the Roman Empire

2. To be Anti-communistand anti-democratic

how does he seize power
How does he seize power?


30,000 to 40,000 Fascists march from Milan to Rome and demanded that Mussolini be named Prime Minister of Italy.

The King of Italy was worried that the Fascist would start a civil war so he agreed

Mussolini therefore took power “legally.”

what did mussolini do while in power
What did Mussolini do while in power?

Outlawed strikes

Censored the press

Allied with industrialists and large land owners

Built a strong military

Started public works project to help during the Depression

Secret police jailed opposition leaders

adolf hitler

Adolf Hitler

The road from Vienna to the Führer of Germany

weimar republic

Post WWI government in Germany

    • Technically a republic with democratic ways
      • But…
        • Very weak
        • Unable to fix the economy
          • Make it worse by printing more money
        • Leaders that people do not support
Weimar Republic
hitler s background

Son of an abusive Austrian official.

  • Dropped out of high school and moved to Vienna.
  • Wanted to be an artist.
    • Was denied entry into the Imperial Art Academy(twice).
    • Lived off of his dead fathers inheritance.
  • Listened to many Anti-Semitic (anti-Jewish) speakers
  • During WWI, moved to Munich, Germany and joined the Army.
    • Was a runner and achieved the rank of corporal.
      • received two Iron Crosses for bravery.
  • Feels cheated at Germany’s loss and blames the Weimar Republic
Hitler’s background
adolf hitler the leader of the nazi party

Hired as an internal spy by the Army

    • Hitler spies on then joins the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi)
      • Nazi’s mimicked much of the ideas of Fascist Italy
  • High unemployment rate and sky rocketing inflation made Hitler’s ideas very appealing to the middle and lower middle classes.
  • Established the SA or Brown Shirts, Nazi thugs used to beat up foes

Hitler took the party from a few dozen members to 55,000 by 1923.

Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party
beer hall putsch 1923

Inspired by Mussolini’s march on Rome

  • Hitler orders the Nazi to seize control of Munich, the plan fails
    • Hitler catches national attention at his trial.
    • Hitler is sentenced to 5 years in low security prison
      • He only serves 9 months
Beer Hall Putsch, 1923
mein kampf

Hitler’s goals/ideals:

  • Racial Purity
    • Aryans = “master race” those of Germanic decent, blond hair and blue eyes
    • non-Aryans = “inferior or subhuman races” = Jews, Slavs and Gypsies
  • Denouncement of the Versailles Treaty
  • Lebensraum:
    • living space, Hitler called for an invasion of Russia to allow the German race to grow
  • The twin evils:
    • Communism and Judaism, and he stated that his aim was to eradicate both from the face of the earth
Mein Kampf
new plan to get to power

Released from jail in 1924 but ignored because the economy was getting better

  • New Plan: Legal Revolution, work with the Right against the Left
    • Nazi’s became a national party in 1929 and had 800,000 members by 1932
      • 1932,
        • Great Depression at it worst
          • Germany 30% unemployment (6 million)
        • Hitler’s Nazi Party won greatest # of seats in the government
        • Hitler is named Chancellor (similar to Prime Minister)
New plan to get to power
adolf hitler the chancellor

1933: Hoping to increase his number of seats in the Parliament, Hitler calls a for new election.

  • Six days before the elections the Reichstag (House of Parliament) is set on fire,
    • the Nazis blame the communists (many historians think that the Nazis set the fire) and the Nazis win a slim majority.
  • Enabling Act 1934
    • With a majority Hitler asks to be given total control of the country for 4 years only one deputy spoke out against it.
Adolf Hitler, the Chancellor
how he changed economics
How he changed Economics:

Banned Strikes and

dissolved labor unions

Government took

control over businesses

Started many government jobs that put millions to work building public works (highways aka the autobahn, bridges, etc.) and weapons

economics continued
Economics continued:

Hosted the 1936 Olympics

Germany won many gold medals

Controversy with Jesse Owens

First African American to compete

Won 4 gold medals!

Caused people to question the Aryan teachings

He affirmed that individual excellence (not race or national origin) distinguishes one man from another

preview to wwii unit

Hitler begins moving his military and invading surrounding countries

  • The League of Nations wants to stop him but has no force or authority to do so
    • They instill a policy called “Appeasement” which gives in to Hitler’s demands
      • Why did they do this?
      • Why was it unsuccessful?
Preview to WWII Unit…
spanish civil war 1936 1939
Until 1931 Spain was a monarchy
  • In 1931 a republic was established, run by socialist and liberals (called “Republicans”).
  • Spain was facing many problems, especially during the economic depression.
  • 1936 a revolt began in favor of

a fascist government, led by

General Francisco Franco and

supported by army leaders.

Spanish Civil War1936-1939
mao zedong

Led China as the Leader from 1949-76

    • Led the Communist Party starting in 1929
  • Grew up in a peasant family
Mao Zedong
civil war and communists take over

Led the Communists in the Civil War against the Nationalists

  • Created the People’s Republic of China
    • Tactics used:
      • Sent opposition to labor camps
      • Long March
      • 5 Year Plans (like Stalin) to get China up to speed with industry and agriculture
      • Government sponsored education with communist teachings
    • Communist China focused on a peasant revolt NOT a worker revolt (different than Marxism)
Civil War and Communists take-over
reminder japan becomes an imperial power
1853: Matthew Perry forces the Japanese to open trade or face war
  • 1868: Traditional government falls apart and the Meiji Era begins
    • Sends ½ of the government to learn from the Western world
      • See Manchester (England) and realize the importance of Industrialization
    • ½ stays in Japan
      • Invade Korea
Reminder: Japan becomes an Imperial Power
a new constitution is formed
Japanese officials that were in the West learned about constitutions
    • Took ideas from the Prussian Constitution
      • Why was this not successful?
  • Meiji Constitution
    • Emperor at the top
    • Military answers only to the emperor (and in future will help rule)
      • In the 1920-30’s Great Depression and Government Corruption lead to the military appointing a “Prime Minister” to rule with Emperor
A new constitution is formed
emperor hirohito showa
1926 he becomes the Emperor
    • Grandson of Meiji
  • Appoints Tojo as Prime Minister
Emperor Hirohito (Showa)
tojo hideki
Tojo believed in the Racial Superiority of the Japanese people, especially over the Chinese.
  • He was also ultra-nationalistic as well as very militaristic.
  • He wanted to expand the Japanese empire throughout the Pacific Rim.
Tojo Hideki
tojo s rise to power
Joined the Japanese army

• His military service included periods in Switzerland and Germany

•Became “major general” in 1933

• Became head of the Kwantung Army military police in 1935

• He was appointed minister of war in 1941 by FumimaroKondoye

A strong supporter of Nazi Germany

• He feared long term plans of Joseph Stalin

Advocated pre-emptive air strikes on both China and the Soviet Union

Executed for charges of being a war criminal in 1948

Tojo’s Rise to Power
post wwi japan
Japan is facing economic depression and large population
    • People of Japan cannot go across the Pacific, instead sent to Manchuria
  • Looking for markets to sell their industrialized goods
    • Europe and Africa are taken by Europeans
      • When Britain pulls out of China, Japan tries to take over
  • Pan Asianism: “Asia is one”
Post WWI Japan
pan asianism asia is one
Japan reminds Asians that Asia is larger and higher populated than Europe
  • Japan claims that they are the “true” Asians and unless culture has reached Asia, it must not be fully Asian
    • To be “fully Asian” (according to Japanese) you must be controlled by the Japanese
      • In other words: The Japanese believed they were helping the people they imperialized
Pan Asianism: “Asia is one”
Unless culture made it all the way up to Japan, the Japanese did not believe it was really “Asian”
military and political ideologies
Invasion is necessary
  • “Korea is the dagger into the heart of Japan”
    • To protect Japan you must control Korea
    • To protect Korea you must control Manchuria
    • To protect Manchuria you must control China
      • If they resist you must force them!
Military and Political ideologies