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Classification of Things. Dr. Harold Williams Montgomery College Planetarium http://Montgomerycollege.edu/Departments/planet/. Who, Why, What, Where, When, and How. Who and What are classification questions Who and Why are Religious questions

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Classification of things

Classification of Things

Dr. Harold Williams

Montgomery College Planetarium

http://Montgomerycollege.edu/Departments/planet/


Who why what where when and how
Who, Why, What, Where, When, and How

  • Who and What are classification questions

  • Who and Why are Religious questions

  • What, Where, When, and How are Scientific Questions

  • Who, Why, What, Where, When, and How are Philosophical Questions

  • Classification spans both Religion and Science by asking Who and What!


Some common classifications in science
Some Common Classifications in Science

  • Periodic Table of the Elements

  • Particle Physics and the Standard Model

  • Fundamental Interactions of Physics

  • Electron Orbitals or Probability Distributions, the Auf Bau

  • Geological Time Scales

  • Biology and the Tree of Life

  • Spectral Classification of the Stars

  • Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram and Luminosity Classes as well as spectral classifications

  • Types of Star Clusters

  • Types of Galaxies



Fundamental particles http en wikipedia org wiki elementary particles
Fundamental Particleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elementary_particles



Quarks
Quarks

Proton

Neutron

  • Protons and neutrons are made of quarks

  • Up quark (u) has charge +2/3

  • Down quark (d) has charge -1/3


Fundamental forces according to the wikipedia
Fundamental Forces according to the Wikipedia

  • Electromagnetism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_interaction

  • Weak Nuclear Force http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weak_interactions

  • Electroweak http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroweak_interaction

  • Strong Nuclear Force http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strong_interaction

  • Gravity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity


Electrons in atoms auf bau
Electrons in Atoms, Auf Bau

  • In quantum mechanics an electron in an atom does not orbit in the usual sense

  • We can know only the probability of finding an electron at a particular spot



Tree of life
Tree of Life

  • Mapping genetic relationships has led biologists to discover this new “tree of life.”

  • Plants and animals are a small part of the tree.

  • Suggests likely characteristics of common ancestor.


Lines in a star’s spectrum correspond to a spectral type that reveals its temperature http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectral_type

(Hottest) O B A F G K M (Coolest)


Remembering Spectral Types

(Hottest) O B A F G K M (Coolest)

  • Oh, Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me

  • Oh, Be A Fine Guy, Kiss Me

  • Oh, Be A Fine Gay, Kiss Me

  • Only Boys Accepting Feminism Get Kissed Meaningfully


Pioneers of stellar classification
Pioneers of Stellar Classification

  • Annie Jump Cannon and the “calculators” at Harvard laid the foundation of modern stellar classification


H-R diagram depicts:

Temperature

Color

Spectral Type

Luminosity

Radius

Luminosity

Temperature



Open cluster: A few thousand loosely packed stars

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_clusters


Globular cluster: Up to a million or more stars in a dense ball bound together by gravity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globular_cluster







Hubble Ultra Deep Field

Elliptical Galaxy

EllipticalGalaxy

Spiral Galaxy


Hubble Ultra Deep Field

Elliptical Galaxy

EllipticalGalaxy

Spiral Galaxy


Hubble Ultra Deep Field

Elliptical Galaxy

EllipticalGalaxy

Irregular Galaxies

Spiral Galaxy


A better name
A better name

  • Spiral galaxies might be better named by calling them Disk galaxies!

  • Some Disk galaxies have no or little spiral structure, but they are still have disks.


Hubble’s galaxy classes

Spheroid

Dominates

Disk Dominates


Categories
Categories

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categories_%28Aristotle%29

  • Categories By Aristotle Written 350 B.C.E Translated by E. M. Edghill another one.

  • Categories List


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