The new south
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The New South. Chapter 9 Sections 3 and 4 Chapter 10 Sections 1-4. The Bourbon Triumvirate (Redeemer). Three Democrats that controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction between the years of 1872-1890.

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The New South

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The new south

The New South

Chapter 9 Sections 3 and 4

Chapter 10 Sections 1-4


The bourbon triumvirate redeemer

The Bourbon Triumvirate (Redeemer)

  • Three Democrats that controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction between the years of 1872-1890.

  • Powerful Democratic leaders (political power), known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate” were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon.

  • Their goals were:

    • expand Georgia’s economy and ties with industries (ex. Textile mills) in the North

    • maintain the tradition of white supremacy.


The bourbon triumvirate redeemer1

The Bourbon Triumvirate (Redeemer)

  • Ideas they had in common

    • White Supremacy- The belief that the white race is superior to any other races

  • Criticized for these problems

    • Not helping the poor

    • Not improving education

    • Poor factory and jail conditions

  • Accomplishments:

    • Expanding business and industry, reducing war debts, and lowering taxes


Henry grady new south era

Henry Grady (New South Era)

  • Challenged the Bourbon Triumvirate- wanted Georgia to be more industrialized.

  • Henry Grady was known as the “Voice of the South” because of his newspaper influence (coined the phrase “New South”)

  • Made African-Americans part of his economic growth

  • Helped plan the International Cotton Exposition.

  • Brought investors from the North which created jobs in Georgia.


International cotton exposition p 361

International Cotton Exposition (p. 361)

  • Was a 3 month exposition (show) held in Georgia in 1895.

  • The Purpose was to:

    • Show how cotton was made into a marketable product

    • Show off the economic recovery of the South

    • Bring Northern investors (money) to Georgia.

    • To highlight Georgia’s Natural Resources.

  • Major GA industries in the New South Era:

    • Textiles, forest products, and mining

  • Led to the growth of the textile industry in GA

    • Water resources, network of railroad lines, supply of cotton, and coastal seaports


Rebecca latimer felton

Rebecca Latimer Felton

  • Independent Democrat who was against the Bourbon Triumvirate

  • Involved in the Women’s Suffrage movement (trying to help women get the right to vote)- 19th amendment

  • Involved in the Temperance Movement -18th amendment (ban on alcohol)

    • Women and Men against alcohol abuse

    • Leader of the temperance movement.

  • Columnist for Atlanta Journal for 41 years (focused on prison reform)

  • Prison Reform- Wanted to ensure people were obeying the rules of the Convict Lease System.

  • CLS- prisoners used for labor by private businesses/industry; Businesses openly violated regulations

    Best Remembered for:

    She was the first woman in the U.S. Senate (she only served one day at the age of 87)


Tom watson and the populists

Tom Watson and the Populists

  • Members of labor organizations joined to form a new political party called the People’s Party. It was usually called the Populist Party.- (Supported 8 hour workday, graduated income tax, and Australian ballot)

    • Made up of groups called “The Grange and Farmer’s Alliance”

  • Wanted to make life easier for the “common man” (all colors)

  • Bring reform in agriculture

  • Elected to General Assembly (Ga. state legislature) as a Democrat (supported by all people)

  • Became a Populist(of the people)-Elected to U.S. House of Representatives

  • Passing RFD (Rural Free Delivery Bill) (Watson introduced this!)

    • This bill meant that rural farm families would now have their mail delivered to their homes for free.

    • Took several years to put into place, but farm families no longer had to travel to the nearest post office for their mail.

  • His views on Civil Rights “did a 180”


Jim crow laws p 351 352

Jim Crow Laws (p. 351 -352)

  • Laws made by states and cities to segregate (keep separate) the African-Americans and whites

  • Separate-but-equal facilities for everything

  • People could be punished for “consorting” with members of another race

  • Intermarriage was illegal

  • Businesses and public institutions were told to keep their black and white clientele separated


Jim crow laws p 351 3521

Jim Crow Laws (p. 351- 352)

“Separate but Equal”

African-Americans:

  • Kept them from voting

  • They had inferior facilities

  • Made them feel they were not good enough

    Whites:

  • Segregation (separation of the races)-was the way of life

  • Made whites feel superior


Plessy v ferguson p 352

Plessy v. Ferguson (p. 352)

  • Case was known as ”Separate-but-equal” ruling

  • Georgia/other southern states continued “separate-but-equal” in all forms of daily life.

  • This Supreme Court ruling gave the new “black codes” called Jim Crow Laws, a legal right to be enforced if violated by African Americans.


Booker t washington

Booker T. Washington

  • Born a slave-raised as son of former sharecroppers

  • Civil rights leader

  • College professor and president of Tuskegee Institute (Alabama)

  • Gave speech at the International Cotton States Exposition – “Atlanta Compromise Speech” 1895

    • Proposed that blacks and whites should agree to benefitfrom each other economically

  • Blacks and whites did not have to mix socially

  • Blacks should not push for equal rights but workto improve themselves- learn a skill and no violence

    • Get a job any job – “Equality will come overtime”


W e b dubois

W.E.B. Dubois

  • Civil rights leader

  • Professor at Atlanta University

  • Wanted and pushed for social and political

    integration of races. Wanted equal rights for all citizens immediately.

  • Felt Washington’s ideas would keep blacks in a position that was lower than whites.

  • Wanted higher education for 10% of the black population (“Talented Tenth”) so they could become leaders for all other blacks.

  • Organized the Niagara Movement to end Jim Crow laws- This movement was made of a group of black educators and professionals. Later became known as the NAACP.

  • Helped found the National Association for theAdvancement of Colored People (NAACP)


1906 atlanta riot p 358

1906 Atlanta Riot (p. 358)

  • Newspaper articles, written by important business men like Tom Watson added to racial tension.

  • Based on reports about African-Americans inappropriate interactions with white women and alcohol abuse (some true/some not)

  • The increase in population put pressure on race relations because of job competition.

    • Response was to pass laws restricting African Americans.

  • Martial law (military rule) needed to bring Atlanta under control

  • Riot lasted 3 days- 18 African-Americans killed, 3 whites killed, hundreds injured

  • High cost of property damage (buildings burned and destroyed)


Racial violence

Racial Violence

  • Threat of racial violence was used to stop African Americans from voting or getting more power

  • KKK used violence such as beatings, burnings, and lynchings to enforce segregation

  • Lynching became common practice of the racial extremists; particularly the KKK.

    • A lynching is an illegal hanging, usually by mobs, or burning at the stake of African Americans in the United States.


Leo frank p 359 360

Leo Frank (p. 359 -360)

  • Found guilty of killing 13 year old-Mary Phagan

  • Governor of Georgia Slaton commuted his sentence to life in prison

  • A group of prominent men (ex governor, mayor, judge, lawyers, business owners) took Leo Frank from his cell in Milledgeville, drove him to Marietta, and hung him from a tree in front of Mary Phagan’s house.

  • Rebirth of the KKK (Ku Klux Klan) This was a huge “setback” in Civil Rights

    Other results:

  • Governor had to leave state

  • Prominent men became “vigilantes”

  • People started thinking about “child labor”

    laws


John lugenia burns hope

John & Lugenia Burns Hope

  • Believed that black people should have the same quality programs as whites

  • John Hope was president of Atlanta Baptist College (Morehouse)

  • Was a friend of W.E.B DuBois and helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

  • Lugenia Hope fought for good housing, health care, jobs and recreational programs for blacks in Atlanta and the United States

  • Helped organize the Boys and Girls Club in Atlanta

  • Organized Neighborhood Union -to improve living conditions for black people


County unit system

County Unit System

  • 1917 Main political party in Georgia was the Democratic party

  • County Unit System established by the McNeill Primary Act (allowed smaller, less populated counties in GA to have the same or greater power and influence in the GA General Assembly as larger, more populated counties)

  • Using the County Units, the smaller counties with only 1/3 of the voters could win an election

  • Candidates could win an election without a majority of the votes

  • CUS was declared “Unconstitutional” and ended in 1962


Alonzo herndon

Alonzo Herndon

  • Born a slave

  • Black businessman who owned many barbershops and later bought a small insurance company and owned over 100 houses (for rentals)

  • Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company - hired black college graduates to run the company

  • Now called the Atlanta Life Insurance Company and is one of the largest African American owned businesses in the USA


Disfranchisement

Disfranchisement

  • Right to vote granted by 15th amendment

  • Southern states made it difficult for African-American men to vote

  • 1900-47% of Georgia was AA

  • Grandfather clause-only men whose grandfathers voted in 1867 were allowed to vote

  • Poll tax-tax to be able to vote

  • Literacy test-had to be able to read

  • Gerrymander- to draw up the voting district to benefit a certain group

  • White Primary

  • Property Requirements


Video links

Video Links

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOrsno4UYBQ

  • http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/videos/new_south_and_leo_frank

  • http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/stories/alonzo_herndon_family

  • http://www.gpb.org/georgiastories/stories/race_riot_of_1906


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