Follow the grain
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Follow the Grain. A Private Breeder’s Perspective January 21, 2010. Outline. Homework or challenge Background Breeding Companies WestBred PVP History and Practice Maybe wheat classes and must know math. Monsanto Announcement. July 2009 Monsanto acquired WestBred, LLC from Barkley Ag

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Follow the grain

Follow the Grain

A Private Breeder’s Perspective

January 21, 2010



  • Homework or challenge

  • Background

  • Breeding Companies

  • WestBred

  • PVP History and Practice

    • Maybe wheat classes and must know math

Monsanto announcement

Monsanto Announcement

  • July 2009 Monsanto acquired WestBred, LLC from Barkley Ag

  • Big news for wheat research

  • Concomitant activities of other companies

My new role

My New Role

Wheat Industry Advisor

Barkley Ag Enterprise

  • Why me and Why now?







World population growth

World Population Growth

Increases in population will create new demand for food and agriculture markets

Source: International Database

Global demand for crops projected to grow

Global Demand for Crops Projected to Grow

Source: IHS Global Insights, Agriculture Division

Wheat one of the most important crops

Wheat: One of the Most Important Crops

Fast Wheat Facts:

  • Wheat is planted on more than 555 million acres worldwide.

  • In seven of the last 10 years, the world has consumed more wheat than it produced.

  • More foods are made with wheat than any other cereal grain.

Source: Wheat Foods Council

Private cereal breeding co s

Private Cereal Breeding Co’s

  • AgriPro Syngenta

  • BASF

  • Bayer CropScience

  • Dow AgriScience

  • Limagrain (France)

  • Pioneer DuPont

  • WestBred Monsanto

  • World Wide Wheat

Today going into phase i

Today going into Phase I

Breeding history of 30 years

Research breeding continuing as it has in the past

We are not forgetting on how we got to today

Implementation of currently available Breeding Tools

Molecular Markers & Doubled Haploids

Increased Analytical testing

Today phase i cont

Today . . . Phase I (cont.)

Collaboration with Public and Private sectors

Continuance of Industry Acceptance, farmers, domestic millers, overseas buyers

Evaluation of platform of trait development in wheat germplasm

Phase i phase ii

Phase I & Phase II

Continued commercialization and release of Elite Germplasm

Establishing a Genetic Footprint

Seeking acceptance of Biotech and implementation of Traits

Follow the grain














Monsanto Will Use Breeding and Biotech

Monsanto s commitment

Monsanto’s Commitment

Producing more

Conserving more

Improving lives

Tug of war

Tug of War

Gmo divide

GMO Divide

Homework and challenge

Homework and Challenge

Intellectual property protection

Intellectual Property Protection

  • Plant Variety Protection Certificates [PVP’s]

  • Plant Patents

  • Utility Patents

Pvpa history

PVPA History

  • Plant Patent Act1930

  • UPOV in Europe1961

  • Plant Varieties & Seeds Act (UK)1964

  • Plant Variety Protection Act1970

Pvpa history1

PVPA History

  • Plant Variety Protection Act1970

    • Requirements: -distinct

      • uniform

      • stable

  • Exemptions: - license in public interest

    • research exemption

    • farmer’s saved seed

Pvp problems


  • Saved seed exemption

    • Delta and Pine Land

      v. Peoples Gin1983

    • Pioneer 21571989

    • Asgrow v. Winterboer1991

Pvpa history2

PVPA History

  • PVPA19701972

    • 17 years(US joined UPOV 1981)

  • PVPA Amended1982

    • 18 years

  • PVPA Amended1994

    • 20 years

Pvpa history3

PVPA History

  • PVPA Amended1994

    • 20 years

    • New, distinct, stable, predictable

    • No ‘Variety Not Stated’ (VNS)

    • Essential derivation

    • No farmer’s seed exemption

Pvpa history4

PVPA History

  • “Title V” Option

  • Variety can only be sold as seed as a class of certified seed

    • Part of the Federal Seed Act

    • Elected with PVP application or subsequent

    • Can be added, never removed

Pvpa violations

PVPA Violations

  • Without certificate holders permission:

    • sell, offer for sale, exchange as seed

    • import into or export from the US

    • use to produce a hybrid

    • fail to give notice as to its PVP status

    • condition the variety for propagation

    • use for essential derivation

Pvpa excuses

PVPA Excuses

  • Didn’t know it was protected

  • Didn’t use the name

  • Didn’t sell it as seed, just grain

  • Didn’t sell it, just traded for it

  • Farmers have a “God-given right” to save and sell seed

  • Members of “x” can pool seed

Pvp vs utility patent

PVP vs. Utility Patent

  • PVP gives license to legal user

  • PVP gives limited control over use

  • PVP has exemptions

    • research

    • national emergency or necessity

Utility patent

Utility Patent

  • PVP gives license to legal user

  • Utility Patent gives no license

  • Utility Patent has few exemptions

Grower education

Grower Education

Additional information

Additional Information

  • A few more bits of information for those traveling to Chile

Us wheat classes

US Wheat Classes

  • Hard red winter

  • Hard red spring

  • Soft red winter

  • Durum

  • Hard white

  • Soft white

    • Winter, spring, club

Wheat barley

Wheat Barley

Yield Price Yield Price

Must know math

Must Know Math !

  • Yield: kg/ha or MT (m.t. or M.T.)/ha

  • kg = 2.2046 pounds

  • MT = 2204.6 pounds

  • ha = 2.471 acres

  • ~kg/ha approx. equal to lb/acre

Must know math1

Must Know Math !

  • World Test Weight

  • kg / hl

    • = lb/bu X 1.287

    • 60 lb/bu = 77 kg/hl

    • 48 lb/bu = 62 kg/hl

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