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End of the Republic. After Caesar died His 18 year old grandnephew Octavian joined forces with Marc Antony (Caesar’s general) and Marcus Lepidus Second triumvirate defeated Caesar’s assassins in 42BCE. Lepidus. Octavian. Antony. Second triumvirate did not last long.

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End of the Republic

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End of the Republic

  • After Caesar died

    • His 18 year old grandnephew Octavian joined forces with Marc Antony (Caesar’s general) and Marcus Lepidus

  • Second triumvirate defeated Caesar’s assassins in 42BCE

Lepidus

Octavian

Antony


Second triumvirate did not last long

  • Octavian forced Lepidus to retire from political life

  • Octavian declared war on Antony when he married Cleopatra

  • 31BCE-Octavian’s forces fought sea battle at Actium in Greece

    • A year later, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide in Egypt to avoid capture

  • Octavian became undisputed ruler of Rome


Mark Antony


Cleopatra


Background info…

  • Octavian believed Rome needed one strong leader

    • Senate agreed and appointed Octavian consul, tribune, and commander in chief for life-27BCE

  • Octavian gave himself the title of Augustus-Majestic One


  • Rome became an Empire and Augustus was the Emperor.

Augustus Caesar


Imperialism

  • a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.


Reasons for Imperial Rome

  • Imperial = empire = large area under single rule

  • Failure to have change of power from one emperor to the next.

  • Civil war giving rise to Octavian (Augustus) Caesar.


Under Augustus

  • Left Senate in tact (mainly as advisors).

  • Civil service started to enforce laws.

  • Fair tax system

    • Used a census to count all who should be taxed

      How can a census help create a fair tax system?

  • Put jobless to work building roads and temples and sent other to farm

  • Economic life grew prosperous.

  • Under Augustus Pax Romana began


Pax Romana

  • 31BCE- “Roman Peace”

  • Peace lasted for 200 years

  • Augustus chose his own heir carefully, but did not derive any law for selection of later emperors.

  • Problems arose when new emperors came to power


Emperors during Pax Romana

  • Caligula = crazy = favorite horse named a consul

  • Nero persecuted the Christians and started a fire that destroyed most of Rome

  • Hadrian had a wall created in Britain to hold back enemies

  • Marcus Aurelius focused on philosophy


Hadrian’s Wall


Economic Impact of Imperialism

  • Augustus established a uniform system of money.

    • Enhanced trade.

      Why would establishing uniform system of money enhance trade?

  • Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads.

  • Prosperity and stability of economy.


Social Impact of Imperialism

  • Stability returned to social classes – end of civil wars.

  • Middle class enjoyed more rights and a better life.

  • Increased focus on family.

    How could focusing on family strengthen the Roman Empire?


Political Impact of Imperialism

  • Stable government.

  • Created a civil service system to make internal improvements to Rome.

    • This also gave jobs to middle class.

  • Developed a uniform rule of law for all of Rome.

    • Today Roman law is the foundation of law that developed in Western Europe and the U.S.


Roman Culture and Contributions

  • Rome embraced and adopted the culture of the Ancient Greeks.

  • Conquest spread Roman culture and technology throughout Europe.

  • Western civilization was influenced by the cultural achievements of Rome.

    What is meant by Western Civilization?


1. Art and Architecture

  • Pantheon

    • Domed structure with seven recesses to honor the gods of the planets.

    • Has open “eye” in the center to let in sunlight (skylight).

    • Today it is a church in Rome.


Pantheon


Pantheon


Pantheon inside


Pantheon inside


Pantheon skylight


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=305niNDG8c4

The Pantheon


  • Colosseum

    • Held 50,000 people.

    • Took a decade to construct.

    • Center for entertainment (gladiators, Christian sacrifices, mazes, naval battles).

    • Model for modern stadiums.


Colosseum


Colosseum


Colosseum inside


Colosseum inside


Video Clip: Unsolved History: The Roman Colosseum

Touring the Colosseum

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=0CCD2227-04DF-4B18-96A8-CB669BD61267


Forum (video)

  • Public places for political debate.

  • Contained a number of separate buildings.


Forum


Forum


Circus Maximus

  • Rome’s race track – Chariot Races

  • Believed to hold 250,000

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aksOAH7dYsQ – Overall view


Circus Maximus


Circus Maximus


Circus maximus drawing


Chariot Races


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3AAHljDbGtA – BEN HUR CHARIOT RACE


2. Technology

Aqueducts

  • Artificial channels for carrying water.

    • From mountains and springs to cities using gravity.

  • From as far as 57 miles away.

  • Lofty arches built of stone.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTMrfyAt6Mo


Aqueducts


Aqueducts in Rome


Inside aqueducts


Roman Town


Roads

  • “All roads lead to Rome”

  • Built of stone, extended throughout Rome for 180,000 miles.

  • Cement wasn’t needed because stones were masterfully fitted together.

  • Connected the empire for unity.

    What other civilization had a large road system?


Roman Roads


Roman Roads

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yu94sFmNwMw


Roman Roads Map


Greco-Roman Culture

  • Rome borrowed heavily from Greek culture

  • Blending of Greek, Hellenistic and Roman culture that spread as Rome spread


3. Science

  • Romans tended to leave scientific research to other people like the Greeks

  • Ptolemy – mathematician/astronomer – proposed theory that Earth was at the center of the universe.

    • This was believed for 1,500 years.

    • His work allowed later astronomers to predict the motion of planets.


4. Literature

  • Romans stole the Greeks style of epic poems.

  • Virgil wrote the Aeneid – tied to Homer’s Iliad.

    • Aeneid escaped from Troy—started Rome.

    • Described how Rome was established.

    • Won favor with Augustus by stressing patriotism.


Other Writers

  • Livy-wrote history of Rome

  • Tacitus-condemned tyranny of Julian emperors

    • Germania-contrasted life of Germans with Romans

  • Cicero-published speeches

  • Ovid-wrote Metamorphose verses

  • Horace-poet


5. Religion

  • Roman mythology is still present today.

  • Names of planets still today named after Roman gods.

  • Roman citizens allowed to worship freely

    • But still had to worship Roman gods

  • Later Christianity emerged within the Roman Empire.


6. Law

  • The Twelve Tables

    • Provided legal and social protection of patricians and plebeians.

  • Similarities today

    • Innocent until proven guilty

    • Defend yourself

    • Face accuser

    • Solid evidence needed

    • Judges interpret the laws and make fair decisions


7. Language

  • Latin became the basis of Romance Languages.

    • Italian, French and Spanish

  • Today many of our words come from Latin words.


Languages Pic.


8. Roman Education

  • Wealthy children received private education at home

  • Young men went to academies

  • Daughters did not attend academies-studied at home

  • Lower classes had basic knowledge of reading, writing, arithmetic for business


Rise of Christianity


Christianity

Message and beliefs

  • Christians beliefs are centered around Jesus.

    • Jesus – Jew born around 4 BCE in Bethlehem.

  • Christianity is deeply rooted in the Jewish religion.

    • One God (monotheism).

    • 10 Commandments

    • All people are equal before God.


  • Jesus called himself the Messiah or the Son of God.

    • His disciples thought he was the messiah, others disagreed with him

  • Jesus also preached NEW beliefs.

    • His mission was to bring spiritual salvation and eternal life (life after death) to all that believe in him.

    • His message was for everyone – gentiles.

    • He preached forgiveness rather than “Eye for an Eye.”


  • Jesus was crucified (died on cross) because he was viewed as being a revolutionary who might lead the Jews against Rome.

  • According to disciples, Jesus arose from the dead (resurrection) and commanded them to spread his teachings.

    • His followers were called Christians.

  • Most of what we know about Jesus comes from the Gospels.

    • Mathew, Mark, Luke, and John.


Spread of Christianity

  • Christianity began as a small group within Judaism.

    • Was in conflict with Roman polytheism.

  • The message of Jesus and Christianity was spread after his death.

  • Paul is credited with spreading Christianity.

    • Came from Asia Minor.

    • Never met Jesus

    • Converted to Christianity after he had a vision.


  • Paul decided to spread Christianity out of Jewish communities to gentiles (non-Jews).

    • Set up churches from Mesopotamia to Rome.

    • Promised eternal life for all believers.

  • Peter first pope

  • Today Christianity is the main religion of Europe, Russia, and North and South America.


Persecution of Christians

  • Emperor Nero was the worst – sacrificed Christians in games at the Colosseum.

    • threw martyrs into stadiums to be killed by wild beasts in front of crowds

  • During the Roman Empire, many Christians were persecuted because of disloyalty to Rome.

    • Christians refused to honor the emperor as a god and rejected military service


Persecution and Competition

  • Persecution lasted until 300sCE

  • Different varieties of Christianity flourished

  • Christianity was a religion of cities and had a big influence

  • Persecution only strengthened its following


Rome Converts to Christianity

  • Christianity became the official religion of Rome in 395 CE under Emperor Theodosius.

    • He banned all old Hellenistic and Roman religions.

  • Under Emperor Constantine, Rome allowed Christianity in 313 CE.

    • Edict of Milan – gave religious freedom to all people in the Roman Empire.


The Early Church

  • 100-500AD: Church Fathers wrote books explaining Christian teachings

  • Augustine

    • Wrote Confessions

    • Leading church official in North Africa

    • Wrote City of God-first history of humanity from Christian viewpoint


Christian Social Order

  • Pope was the leader of the Catholic Church.

  • Bishops directed churches in religious services.

  • Priests served in parishes (churches).


Causes for the Fall of the Roman Empire

  • Marcus Aurelius (161-180 CE) is considered to be the last great emperor of Rome.

  • He led Rome through Pax Romana.

    • Pax Romana ended soon after the death of Marcus Aurelius.

    • 192 CE, Rome began to split apart as the army began choosing emperors.


Economic Causes

  • Poor harvests

  • Trade disruptions

  • Inflation and devalued currency.

  • Rising cost of defending Rome’s borders.


Social Causes

  • Loss of confidence in the Empire.

  • Corruption and lack of patriotism.

  • Social inequalities.

  • Christian beliefs.


Political Causes

  • Political instability over 50 years with 26 different emperors.

  • Partition (dividing) of empire.

    • Diocletian in the West & Constantine in the East

  • Capital moved from Rome to Byzantium.


Military Causes

  • Threat of barbarians and Persians to Invade

  • Troops no longer loyal- fought each other

  • Rome simply got too big to manage.


Attempts to Save Rome

  • 284 – 305 CE – Diocletian ruled the Empire.

    • Tried to save Rome by dividing it into and Eastern and Western Empire

    • Eastern capital was Byzantium, Western capital was Rome.

    • Tried to divide Rome to make it easier to manage.


  • 312 – 337 CE – Constantine ruled the Empire.

    • Built a great capital at Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople.

      • Modern day Turkey.


East-Byzantine Empire

West- Roman Empire


End of Rome

  • Now there were two empires.

    • The western empire was less prosperous than the eastern empire.

    • Harder to defend Eastern Rome against attacks from German barbarians.

    • During the 400’s invasions came from the Huns (under Attila the Hun), the Germans, and other groups trying to weaken Rome’s control.


  • German Invaders: Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Vandals, Franks, Angles, Saxons

  • Visigoths most important

    • 378CE-rebelled against Roman rule and defeated Roman army


  • The Huns

    • Nomadic group from Central Asia

    • Led by Attila

    • Raided eastern empire then moved north to Gaul

    • 451CE-Romans and Visigoths united to stop the Huns

    • Attila turned to Italy

      • He died in 453 and the Huns retreated to Europe


  • 476 CE Fall of the Western Empire

    • Eastern Empire (Byzantine Empire) lasted another 1000 years

  • Roman Empire controlled by Germanic tribes after “fall” of Rome

    • Fought against each other

    • Had no experience in governing an empire

    • Franks/Goth split Gaul

    • Vandals sacked Rome

  • The Roman Catholic Church survived and came to rule in the city of Rome and the surrounding areas


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