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World War I Abroad and Civil Liberties at Home. World War I . Prelude to War Election of 1912 Woodrow Wilson War in Europe New type of warfare U.S. reaction U.S. in World War I The sinking of Lusitania Reasons for U.S. entry U.S. soldiers in the war End of War

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World War I Abroad and Civil Liberties at Home

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World War I AbroadandCivil Liberties at Home


World War I

  • Prelude to War

    • Election of 1912

    • Woodrow Wilson

  • War in Europe

    • New type of warfare

    • U.S. reaction

  • U.S. in World War I

    • The sinking of Lusitania

    • Reasons for U.S. entry

    • U.S. soldiers in the war

  • End of War

    • The Bolshevik Revolution

    • The Versailles Treaty

    • The League of Nations


Pre-War > Election of 1912

  • Four candidates:

    • William Taft - incumbent, Republican

    • Woodrow Wilson - surprise candidate, Democrat

    • Teddy Roosevelt - progressive “Bull Moose” party, best showing ever by 3rd party

    • Eugene Debs - socialist, won 6% of the vote - the most votes won by a socialist candidate in US history

  • Stood for different approaches to US politics

    • Taft - laissez-faire Gilded Age politics

    • Wilson - progressivist, pro-small business and competition

    • Roosevelt - militant anti-trust politics

    • Debs - peaceful overthrow of capitalism


Pre-War > Cartoon on the election of 1912


Pre-War > Eugene Debs for Presidency, 1912


Pre-War > Taft at Wilson’s inauguration, 1913


Pre-War > Harper’s supporting Wilson in the election of 1912


Pre-War > Woodrow Wilson cited in a film lauding the KKK, Birth of a Nation, 1916


War in Europe > The Western Front


War in Europe > Gas masks used in World War I


War in Europe > Lyrics of World War I songs

A POOR AVIATOR LAY DYING

A poor aviator lay dying.

At the end of a bright summer’s day.

His comrades had gathered about him.

To carry his fragments away.

The airplane was piled on his wishbone,

His Hotchkiss was wrapped round his head;

He wore a spark-plug on each elbow,

'Twas plain he would shortly be dead.

He spit out a valve and a gasket,

And stirred in the sump where he lay,

And then to his wondering comrades,

These brave parting words he did say:

And the butterfly valve off my neck,

Extract from my liver the crankshaft,

There are lots of good parts in this wreck.

And the cylinders out of my brain,

Take the piston rods out of my kidneys,

And assemble the engine again."

BOMBED LAST NIGHT

Oh God damnn the bombin' planes from Germany.

They’re over us, they’re over us,

One shell-hole for the four of us

Glory be to God there are no more of us

'Cause one of us could fill it all alone.

Gassed last night—gassed the night before,

Gonna get gassed again if we never git

gassed no more,

When we’re gassed, we’re as sick as we can be,

'Cause phosgene and mustard gas is too much

for me.


War in Europe > Deformed faces of soldiers


War in Europe > Cartoon on the war from nonwestern point of view, Chicago Daily News, 1914


War in Europe > Cartoon on the war from nonwestern point of view, Columbus, OH, Dispatch, 1915


War in Europe > Cartoon on German atrocities in Belgium, Life, 1915


U.S. in World War I > The Sinking of Lusitania, 1915


U.S. in World War I > Cartoon about the Zimmerman telegram, March 1917


U.S. in World War I > Reasons for US entry into World War I

  • War profits U.S. traded heavily with Britain and France but complied with a British embargo on trading with Germany

  • Anglophilia on the part of leaders like Woodrow Wilson and also among ordinary Americans (but not German or Irish immigrants)

  • Security of loans to Europe

  • The vision of a “liberal democratic world order”:

    • Wilson envisioned trade between equal national partners just as he envisioned a domestic economy made up of small businesses instead of huge trusts


U.S. in World War I > The Poster by the Committee on Public Information


U.S. in World War I > Black Troops in France, 1918


U.S. in World War I > US Government Film about American Soldiers in the War


U.S. in World War I > German leaflet addressed to black troops in France


U.S. in World War I > American ambulance similar to the one Ernest Hemingway drove in Milan in 1918


U.S. in World War I > Typical Questions on the IQ test

Garnets are usually

A. yellow

B. blue

C. green

D. red

Soap is made by

A. B. T. Babbitt

B. Smith & Wesson

C. W. L. Douglas

D. Swift & Co.

Laura Jean Libby is known as a

A. singer

B. suffragist

C. writer

D. army nurse

If you are lost in a forest in the daytime, what is the thing to do?

Hurry to the nearest house you know of

Look for something to eat

Use the sun or a compass for a guide


U.S. in World War I > US Army Intelligence Test Results


End of World War I > Cartoon on the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917

Caption: “Count Parasitsky will not occupy his palatial residence in the mountains this summer. He expects to remain in the city and do uplift work.”


End of World War I > Europe in 1914


End of World War I > Europe in 1919


End of World War I > Cartoon on the European view of the League of Nations


End of World War I > Cartoon on Woodrow Wilson and the League of Nations, 1919


End of World War I > Cartoon on the international entanglements of the League of Nations


World War I and Civil Liberties

  • Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties

    • Espionage and Sedition Acts

    • The free speech cases

  • Cultural censorship

    • Anti-German sentiments

    • Jane Addams

  • 1919

    • Suffrage

    • Prohibition

    • Race riots

    • Strike wave

  • Red Scare

    • Fear of Bolshevism

    • The Palmer Raids


World War I > Wartime Restriction of Civil Liberties in US History

  • 1798: Alien and Sedition Acts

  • Civil War: Suspension of Habeas Corpus

  • 1917: The Espionage Act

  • 1919-1920: The Red Scare


World War I > Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman, anarchists censored to two years in penitentiary and fined $10,000 each for opposing the draft, July 9, 1917


World War I > Eugene Debs was jailed again under the Espionage Act in 1918


World War I > Cartoon against the Sedition Act, 1920


World War I > Supreme Court Free Speech Cases

  • Charles Schenk v. United States (1919)

    • convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917

    • distributed antiwar pamphlets

    • conviction upheld

    • Oliver Wendell Holmes: “man shouting in a crowded theater,” “clear and present danger”

  • Jacob Abrams v. United States (1919)

    • convicted under the Espionage Act

    • distributed pamphlets and agitated against the war

    • conviction upheld

    • Holmes dissented: “the defendants were deprived of their rights under the constitution of the United States”

  • Benjamin Gitlow v New York (1925)

    • convicted under the New York Criminal Anarchy Law of 1902

    • called for the overthrow of U.S. government

    • the Court upheld the state law but extended the reach of the First amendment

    • Holmes dissented: “government must show the clear and immediate danger.”


World War I > The Poster by the Committee on Public Information


World War I > Some names changed because of the war with Germany

  • Hamburger - “liberty stake”

  • Sauerkraut - “liberty cabbage”

  • German measles - “liberty measles”

  • dashchunds - “liberty pups”

  • Berlin, Iowa - Lincoln, Iowa

  • Kaiser Street - Maine Way


World War I > Cartoon making fun of Jane Addams, 1918


Suffrage > Men at the National Anti-Suffrage Association Headquaters


Suffrage > The National Women’s Party pickets the White House in January 1917


Suffrage > Women’s Suffrage Cartoon


Prohibition > Prohibition Cartoon, San Francisco Chronicle, May 1919


Prohibition > Cartoon Announcing the End of Crime Due to Prohibition, 1919


Race Riots > Police “Rescues” a Black Man During the Chicago Race Riot


Strike Wave > The Seattle General Strike


Strike Wave > Steel Workers Announce the Walk-Out, October 4, 1919


Strike Wave > US Steel Corporation Poster Proclaims Victory


Strike Wave > Strike Ballot in Several European Languages, 1919


Strike Wave > New York World Cartoon about the Railroad Strike, April 1919


Red Scare > Philadelphia Inquirer cartoon against Bolshevism, 1919


Red Scare > Literary Digest on the Bombing of Palmer’s Home, June 1919


Red Scare > Police searches suspects in Palmer raids


Red Scare > Chicago Tribune Cartoon on Foreign Radicals, June 1919


Red Scare > Spider-web chart linking women’s rights groups to radicalism, 1922


Red Scare > Debs and Palmer on Radicalism

Eugene Debs, 1918:

“I believe in the Constitution. Isn’t it strange that we Socialists stand almost alone today in upholding and defending the Constitution of the United States? The revolutionary fathers … understood that free speech, a free and the right of free assemblage by the people were fundamental principles in democratic government. … I believe in the right of free speech, in war as well as peace.”

Attorney General Mitchell Palmer, 1920:

“Like a prairie-fire, the blaze of revolution was sweeping over every American institution of law and order a year ago. It was eating its way into the homes of the American workmen, its sharp tongues of revolutionary heat were licking the altars of the churches, leaping into the belfry of the school bell, crawling into the sacred corners of American homes, seeking to replace marriage vows with libertine laws, burning up the foundations of society. …

My information showed that communism in this country was an organization of thousands of aliens who were direct allies of Trotzky. Aliens of the same misshapen caste of mind and indecencies of character, and it showed that they were making the same glittering promises of lawlessness, of criminal autocracy to Americans, that they had made to the Russian peasants.”


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