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International Standards And Electronic Commerce. Frank Farance, Farance Inc. New York, NY, USA +1 212 486 4700 [email protected] http://www.farance.com. A Technical Rationale For International Standards. Review problem before proposing solution Several perspectives, stakeholders

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international standards and electronic commerce

International Standards AndElectronic Commerce

Frank Farance, Farance Inc.New York, NY, USA+1 212 486 [email protected]://www.farance.com

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

a technical rationale for international standards
A Technical Rationale For International Standards
  • Review problem before proposing solution
  • Several perspectives, stakeholders
  • Catalog problems
  • Better understanding of problem
  • Better solutions
  • Useful, interoperable, widely adopted standards

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

many possibilities for poor incomplete solutions
Many Possibilities For Poor, Incomplete Solutions
  • DON’T review problem before proposing solution ==>
    • Just propose solutions: not just Java, XML, PKI
    • Just use credit cards over Internet
    • Integration problems
    • Cultural problems
    • Solutions based on market share, not needs
    • Proprietary solutions

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

many possibilities for poor incomplete solutions1
Many Possibilities For Poor, Incomplete Solutions
  • DON’T incorporate several perspectives and stakeholders ==>
    • Optimum for one class of consumers, not all
    • Optimum for one industry, not many
    • Optimum for one country, not many
    • Optimum for one set of laws/regulations
    • Optimum for one type of network, not many
    • Optimum for one type of currency/instrument
    • Optimum for one type of transaction

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

many possibilities for poor incomplete solutions2
Many Possibilities For Poor, Incomplete Solutions
  • DON’T catalog problems ==>
    • Integration issues as solutions are broadly adopted: security, fraud/audit , nomadicity, currency, legal, consumer protection, usability
    • May abort solution if unworkable
    • May become too expensive to be practical

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

many possibilities for poor incomplete solutions3
Many Possibilities For Poor, Incomplete Solutions
  • DON’T strive for better understanding of problem ==>
    • Take first solution that works somewhat ==> penalty: large commitment to poor solution
    • Revise technology/solutions every 3-5 years ==> penalty: high maintenance, incompatible
    • Don’t anticipate related technologies: security, data interchange, cultural/user adaptation ==> penalty: very expensive rework

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

activity within iso iec jtc1 information technology
Activity within ISO/IEC JTC1 (Information Technology)
  • Business Team on Electronic Commerce
  • Focus: identify “work items” for new standards; developed report and proposal
  • Responsive, non-traditional gathering of international industry players
  • National, regional, industry, cross-sectoral interests
  • Chair: Ulrich Hartmann, Siemens, Germany

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

review existing systems reports and specifications
Review Existing Systems, Reports, and Specifications
  • CommerceNet\'s Architectural Framework for Internet Commerce (eCo System)
  • EBES/EWOS Building Blocks for Electronic Commerce
  • Electronic Commerce Promotion Council of Japan (ECOM) common platform for Consumer-EC

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

review existing systems reports and specifications1
Review Existing Systems, Reports, and Specifications
  • Java Electronic Commerce Framework (JECF)
  • Object Management Group (OMG) Electronic Commerce Reference Model
  • Open Trading Protocol (OTP)
  • Secure Electronic Market Place for Europe (SEMPER)

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

review existing systems reports and specifications2
Review Existing Systems, Reports, and Specifications
  • CEN/TC 224 - ISO/TC 68/SC 6, Group for Standardization on Electronic Commerce
  • JTC 1/SC 27 ad hoc Group GII Security
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), “Measuring Electronic Commerce” [OCDE/GD(97)185]
  • “Consumer Requirements In Electronic Commerce”, Norway

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

review existing systems reports and specifications3
Review Existing Systems, Reports, and Specifications
  • “Measuring Information Society 1997”, Information Society Activity Centre, of the European Commission.
  • “Eurobarometer”: 16000 interviews in all European Union countries, measuring interest in new information and communication technologies

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

iso iec jtc1 caw cultural adaptation workshop
ISO/IEC JTC1 CAW (Cultural Adaptation Workshop)
  • Information technology systems that address differing needs of users, cultures, regulations: Localization (L10N) vs. Internationalization (I18N)
  • Not specific to electronic commerce
  • Important area because it defines the “semantics” of the transactions
  • http://www.itscj.ipsj.or.jp/caw

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

ansi iisp information infrastructure standards panel
ANSI IISP (Information Infrastructure Standards Panel)
  • Coordinates US GII activity
  • Identifies cross-industry standards needs
  • Origin: White House NII initiative by Vice President Al Gore; now global perspective
  • 160+ standards needs identified in many areas: security, nomadicity, electronic publications, multimedia, networking, appliances, etc.: http://www.ansi.org/iisp

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

next step catalog problems
Next Step: Catalog Problems
  • Review problem before proposing solution
  • Several perspectives, stakeholders
  • Catalog problems
  • Better understanding of problem
  • Better solutions
  • Useful, interoperable, widely adopted standards

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

main areas of standardization
Main Areas of Standardization
  • User interfaces
  • Basic functions
  • Definition and encoding of data and other objects

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

user interfaces
User Interfaces
  • Icons
  • Dialogue design principles
  • Customer profiles

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

basic functions
Basic Functions
  • Trading protocols
  • Payment methods
  • Security mechanisms
  • Identification and authentication
  • Auditing and recordkeeping

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

definition and encoding of data and other objects
Definition and Encoding of DataAnd Other Objects
  • IT-enablement of existing standards
  • Techniques for defining message semantics
  • Localization (L10N)
  • Registration authorities
  • Value domains

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

trading protocols the transaction
Trading Protocols:The Transaction
  • Financial Events: debits and credits associated with the accounting systems of the parties of the transaction
  • Business Process: customary steps and flow of a certain type of business
  • Information Bundles: information attached to the steps of the business process and/or to the financial events

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

payment methods
Payment Methods
  • Existing Work: CyberCash, CyberCoin, DigiCash ecash, E-check, e-COMM, Electronic Purse Systems (e.g., Mondex, GeldKarte, Clip, prEN 1546), EMV, Home Banking Computer Interface (HBCI), JEPI, Millicent, Proton, Secure Electronic Transactions (SET), Visa Cash
  • Standards Work: ANSI X9, ECBS (European Committee on Banking Stds)

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

security mechanisms
Security Mechanisms
  • Integrity of Transactions and Information
  • Digital Signatures
    • Harmonize methods
    • Need common signing method for consumer
  • Key Management Infrastructure
  • Standards Work: JTC1/SC27, TC68, IETF PKIX, IEEE P1363

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

identification authentication
Identification, Authentication
  • Confidentiality
  • Anonymity
  • Identifiers
  • Authentication
  • Standards Work: JTC1/SC27, JTC1/SC31, JTC1/SC32, TC68

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

auditing recordkeeping
Auditing, Recordkeeping
  • Still many open issues
  • Internationalization (I18N) increases complexity of harmonization: How are systems audited across country borders?
  • Too new to define

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

next steps current activity
Next Steps: Current Activity
  • Review problem before proposing solution
  • Several perspectives, stakeholders
  • Catalog problems
  • Better understanding of problem
  • Better solutions
  • Useful, interoperable, widely adopted standards

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

years away common standard solutions
Years Away:Common, Standard Solutions
  • Review problem before proposing solution
  • Several perspectives, stakeholders
  • Catalog problems
  • Better understanding of problem
  • Better solutions
  • Useful, interoperable, widely adopted standards

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

summary and conclusions
Summary and Conclusions
  • Review problem before proposing solution
    • Mostly complete
    • Still to come: regulatory issues, cultural issues, agreement on security/fraud/audit methods
  • Several perspectives, stakeholders
    • Review is complete
  • Catalog problems
    • Complete; localization issues are, well, local

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

summary and conclusions1
Summary and Conclusions
  • Better understanding of problem
    • Yes, but ... important issues still to resolve
    • Affects integration, e.g., security, nomadicity
  • Better solutions
  • Useful, interoperable, widely adopted standards

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

electronic commerce links
Electronic Commerce Links
  • EBES / EWOS: European Board on EDI Standardization / European Workshop for Open Systemshttp://www.cenorm.be/isss
  • ECOM (of Japan): Electronic Commerce Promotion Council (of Japan)http://www.ecom.or.jp/eng/index.htm

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

electronic commerce links1
Electronic Commerce Links
  • e-COMMhttp://www.e-comm.fr/anglais/sommaire.html
  • EMV: The Europay International, MasterCard International and Visa International Consortiumhttp://www.visa.com/cgi-bin/vee/nt/chip/download.html?2+0
  • JECF: Java Electronic Commerce Framework http:/java.sun.com

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

electronic commerce links2
Electronic Commerce Links
  • JEPI: Joint Electronic Payment Initiative (from CommerceNet and W3C)http://www.w3c.org
  • OBI: Open Buying on the Internethttp://www.supplyworks.com/obi/
  • OECD: Organisation for EconomicCo-operation and Developmenthttp://www.oecd.org

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

electronic commerce links3
Electronic Commerce Links
  • OMG: Object Management Grouphttp://www.omg.org
  • OTP: Open Trading Protocolhttp://www.otp.org
  • SEMPER: Secure Electronic Market Place for Europe http://www.semper.org
  • SET: Secure Electronic Transactions http://www.setco.org/

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

other links
Other Links
  • Business Team on Electronic Commerce Report: JTC1/N5296 http://www.jtc1.org
  • ISO-IEC JTC1 CAW: Cultural Adaptability Workshophttp://www.itscj.ipsj.or.jp/caw
  • ANSI IISP: American National Standards Institute, Information Infrastructure Standards Panelhttp://www.ansi.org/iisp

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

other links1
Other Links
  • Cross-Standards Collaboration Activity (links to GII standards and consortia)http://www.GlobalCollaboration.ORG
  • Frank Farance, Farance Inc.Phone: +1 212 486 4700E-mail: [email protected]://www.farance.com
  • This presentation at: http://www.farance.com/ifip

Frank Farance, IFIP 1998

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