Chemistry chapter 11
Download
1 / 150

Chemistry Chapter 11 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 105 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chemistry Chapter 11. Writing Chemical Equations. In a chemical reaction, one or more substances (the reactants) change into one or more new substances (the products). Word Equations

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chemistry Chapter 11' - jun


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript



  • Word Equations reactants) change into one or more new substances (the products).

  • How do you describe what happens in a chemical reaction? Recall from Chapter 2 the shorthand method for writing a description of a chemical reaction. In this method, the reactants were written on the left and the products on the right. An arrow separated them. You read the arrow as yields, gives, or reacts to produce.

  • Reactants → products



  • Three common chemical reactions are. to the left of the arrow separated by plus signs; write the names of the products to the right of the arrow, also separated by plus signs.a When methane gas burns, it combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. b Iron turns to red-brown rust (iron(III) oxide) in the presence of oxygen in the air. c Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to water and oxygen when used as an antiseptic.





  • chemical equation to the left of the arrow separated by plus signs; write the names of the products to the right of the arrow, also separated by plus signs.

  • an expression representing a chemical reaction; the formulas of the reactants (on the left) are connected by an arrow with the formulas for the products (on the right)


  • skeleton equation to the left of the arrow separated by plus signs; write the names of the products to the right of the arrow, also separated by plus signs.

  • a chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products





  • catalyst the physical states of substances by putting a symbol after each formula. Use (

  • a substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation-energy barrier; the catalyst is not used up in the reaction



  • Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to form water and oxygen gas. formula is written above the arrow in a chemical equation a Bubbles of oxygen appear slowly as decomposition proceeds. b With the addition of the catalyst manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2), decomposition speeds up. The white “smoke” is condensed water vapor. (show on board)



  • coefficients formula is written above the arrow in a chemical equation

  • a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation


  • balanced equation formula is written above the arrow in a chemical equation

  • a chemical equation in which mass is conserved; each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element







  • Key Concept silver nitrate is described by this skeleton equation. How can it be balanced?How do you write a word equation?Hint

  • (8) Key Concept How do you write a skeleton equation?Hint

  • (9) Key Concept Describe the steps in writing a balanced chemical equation.Hint


  • 10) silver nitrate is described by this skeleton equation. How can it be balanced?Write skeleton equations for these reactions.

  • Heating copper(II) sulfide in the presence of diatomic oxygen produces pure copper and sulfur dioxide gas.

  • When heated, baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate) decomposes to form the products sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide, and water.


  • (11) silver nitrate is described by this skeleton equation. How can it be balanced?Write and balance equations for the following reactions.

  • Iron metal and chlorine gas react to form solid iron(III) chloride.

  • Solid aluminum carbonate decomposes to form solid aluminum oxide and carbon dioxide gas.

  • Solid magnesium reacts with aqueous silver nitrate to form solid silver and aqueous magnesium nitrate.


  • 12) silver nitrate is described by this skeleton equation. How can it be balanced?Balance the following equations.

  • SO2 + O2 → SO3

  • Fe2O3 + H2 → Fe + H2O

  • P + O2 → P4O10

  • Al + N2 → AlN



  • Classifying reactions rapid reaction. The product of the reaction is water. This is the equation for the burning of hydrogen:

  • The five general types of reaction are combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion


  • combination reaction rapid reaction. The product of the reaction is water. This is the equation for the burning of hydrogen:

  • a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance; also called a synthesis reaction


  • 2Mg( rapid reaction. The product of the reaction is water. This is the equation for the burning of hydrogen: s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s)

  • Notice that in this reaction, as in all combination reactions, the product is a single substance (MgO), which is a compound. The reactants in this combination reaction (Mg and O2) are two elements





  • decomposition reaction reaction of a transition metal and a nonmetal.

  • a chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into two or more simpler products


  • single-replacement reaction reaction of a transition metal and a nonmetal.

  • a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound; also called a displacement reaction


  • Zn( reaction of a transition metal and a nonmetal.s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) → Cu(s) + Zn(NO3)2(aq)


  • You can identify a single-replacement reaction by noting that both the reactants and the products consist of an element and a compound. In the equation above, zinc and copper change places. The reacting element Zn replaces copper in the reactant compound Cu(NO3)2. The products are the element Cu and the compound Zn(NO3)2.



  • activity series compound depends upon the relative reactivities of the two metals.

  • a list of elements in order of decreasing activity; the activity series of halogens is Fl, Cl, Br, I



  • Bromine is more active than iodine, so this reaction occurs: The activity of the halogens decreases as you go down Group 7A of the periodic table—fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

  • Br2(aq) + NaI(aq) → NaBr(aq) + I2(aq)

  • But bromine is less active than chlorine, so this reaction does not occur:

  • Br2(aq) + NaCl(aq) → No reaction


  • double-replacement reaction The activity of the halogens decreases as you go down Group 7A of the periodic table—fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

  • a chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions between two compounds




  • (1) One of the products is only slightly soluble and precipitates from solution. For example, the reaction of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide and cadmium nitrate produces a yellow precipitate of cadmium sulfide.

  • Na2S(aq) + Cd(NO3)2(aq) → CdS(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)




  • combustion reaction Combining solutions of calcium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid produces water.

  • a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light



  • 2C8H18( dioxide and water. l ) + 25O2(g) → 16CO2(g) + 18H2O(l )


  • 2Mg( dioxide and water. s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s)

  • S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g)






  • (25) general types of reactions?Hint Which of the five general types of reaction would most likely occur, given each set of reactants? What are the probable products?

  • an aqueous solution of two ionic compoundsHint

  • a single compoundHint

  • two elementsHint

  • oxygen and a compound of carbon and hydrogenHint


  • 26) general types of reactions?Hint Complete and balance an equation for each reaction.

  • CaI2 + Hg(NO3)2 → (HgI2 precipitates.)

  • Al + Cl2 →

  • Ag + HCl →

  • C2H2 + O2 →

  • MgCl2 →


  • (27) general types of reactions?Hint What are the three types of products that result from double-replacement reactions?


m general types of reactions?Hint

  • Reactions in Aqueous Solution




  • AgNO3( sodium ions (Na+(aq) + NaCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)


  • complete ionic equation sodium ions (Na+(

  • an equation that shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions


  • Ag+( sodium ions (Na+(aq) + NO3−(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq) → AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3−(aq)

  • Notice that the nitrate ion and the sodium ion appear unchanged on both sides of the equation. The equation can be simplified by eliminating these ions because they don’t participate in the reaction.


  • spectator ion sodium ions (Na+(

  • an ion that is not directly involved in a chemical reaction; an ion that does not change oxidation number or composition during a reaction


  • net ionic equation sodium ions (Na+(

  • an equation for a reaction in solution showing only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change


  • Ag +( sodium ions (Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq) → AgCl(s)

  • In writing balanced net ionic equations, you must make sure that the ionic charge is balanced. For the previous reaction, the net ionic charge on each side of the equation is zero and is therefore balanced.



  • Pb( with silver nitrate.s) + Ag+(aq) → Ag(s) + Pb2+(aq) (unbalanced)


  • Why is this equation unbalanced? Notice that a single unit of positive charge is on the reactant side of the equation. Two units of positive charge are on the product side. Placing the coefficient 2 in front of Ag+(aq) balances the charge. A coefficient of 2 in front of Ag(s) rebalances the atoms.

  • Pb(s) + 2Ag+(aq) → 2Ag(s) + Pb2+(aq) (balanced)





  • 2Na+( general rules for solubility of ionic compounds.aq) + CO32−(aq) + Ba2+(aq) + 2NO3−(aq) → ?



  • To find out if an exchange will occur, refer to Table 11.3, which gives guidelines for determining whether ion combinations are soluble. Recall that sodium is an alkali metal. Rows 1 and 2 tell you that sodium nitrate will not form a precipitate because alkali metal salts and nitrate salts are soluble.



  • (30) Key Concept Barium carbonate will precipitate. In this reaction Na+ and NO3− are spectator ions. The net ionic equation for this reaction is as follows.What is a net ionic equation?Hint

  • (31) Key Concept How can you predict the formation of a precipitate in a double-replacement reaction?Hint


  • 32) Barium carbonate will precipitate. In this reaction Na+ and NO3− are spectator ions. The net ionic equation for this reaction is as follows.Write a balanced net ionic equation for each reaction.

  • Pb(NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + HNO3(aq)

  • Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) + HCl(aq) → PbCl2(s) + HC2H3O2(aq)

  • Na3PO4(aq) + FeCl3(aq) → NaCl(aq) + FePO4(s)

  • (NH4)2S(aq) + Co(NO3)2(aq) → CoS(s) + NH4NO3(aq)


  • (33) Barium carbonate will precipitate. In this reaction Na+ and NO3− are spectator ions. The net ionic equation for this reaction is as follows.Write a balanced net ionic equation for each reaction. Identify the spectator ions in each reaction.

  • HCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) →

  • Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) + LiCl(aq) →

  • Na3PO4(aq) + CrCl3(aq) →


  • (33) Barium carbonate will precipitate. In this reaction Na+ and NO3− are spectator ions. The net ionic equation for this reaction is as follows.Write a balanced net ionic equation for each reaction. Identify the spectator ions in each reaction.

  • HCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) →

  • Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) + LiCl(aq) →

  • Na3PO4(aq) + CrCl3(aq) →


  • (35) Barium carbonate will precipitate. In this reaction Na+ and NO3− are spectator ions. The net ionic equation for this reaction is as follows.Will a precipitate form when the following aqueous solutions of ionic compounds are mixed?

  • AgNO3 and Na2SO4

  • NH4Cl and Ba(NO3)2

  • CaCl2 and K2SO4

  • Pb(NO3)2 and HCl


ad