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Chemistry Chapter 11. Writing Chemical Equations. In a chemical reaction, one or more substances (the reactants) change into one or more new substances (the products). Word Equations

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slide3
In a chemical reaction, one or more substances (the reactants) change into one or more new substances (the products).
slide4
Word Equations
  • How do you describe what happens in a chemical reaction? Recall from Chapter 2 the shorthand method for writing a description of a chemical reaction. In this method, the reactants were written on the left and the products on the right. An arrow separated them. You read the arrow as yields, gives, or reacts to produce.
  • Reactants → products
slide5
To write a word equation, write the names of the reactants to the left of the arrow separated by plus signs; write the names of the products to the right of the arrow, also separated by plus signs.
slide6
Three common chemical reactions are. a When methane gas burns, it combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. b Iron turns to red-brown rust (iron(III) oxide) in the presence of oxygen in the air. c Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to water and oxygen when used as an antiseptic.
slide10
chemical equation
  • an expression representing a chemical reaction; the formulas of the reactants (on the left) are connected by an arrow with the formulas for the products (on the right)
slide11
skeleton equation
  • a chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products
slide12
The first step in writing a complete chemical equation is to write the skeleton equation. Write the formulas of the reactants to the left of the yields sign (arrow) and the formulas of the products to the right.
slide13
To add more information to the equation, you can indicate the physical states of substances by putting a symbol after each formula. Use (s) for a solid, (l ) for a liquid, (g) for a gas, and (aq) for a substance in aqueous solution (a substance dissolved in water).
slide15
catalyst
  • a substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation-energy barrier; the catalyst is not used up in the reaction
slide16
A catalyst is neither a reactant nor a product, so its formula is written above the arrow in a chemical equation
slide17
Hydrogen peroxide decomposes to form water and oxygen gas. a Bubbles of oxygen appear slowly as decomposition proceeds. b With the addition of the catalyst manganese(IV) oxide (MnO2), decomposition speeds up. The white “smoke” is condensed water vapor. (show on board)
slide25
coefficients
  • a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation
slide26
balanced equation
  • a chemical equation in which mass is conserved; each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element
slide27
To write a balanced chemical equation, first write the skeleton equation. Then use coefficients to balance the equation so that it obeys the law of conservation of mass.
slide28
In every balanced equation, each side of the equation has the same number of atoms of each element.
  • Sometimes a skeleton equation may already be balanced.
slide31
carbon burns in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide. This equation is balanced. One carbon atom and two oxygen atoms are on each side of the equation.
slide39
The reaction of copper metal with an aqueous solution of silver nitrate is described by this skeleton equation. How can it be balanced?
  • Cu(s) + AgNO3(aq) → Cu(NO3)2(aq) + Ag(s)
slide46
Key Concept How do you write a word equation?Hint
  • (8) Key Concept How do you write a skeleton equation?Hint
  • (9) Key Concept Describe the steps in writing a balanced chemical equation.Hint
slide47
10)Write skeleton equations for these reactions.
  • Heating copper(II) sulfide in the presence of diatomic oxygen produces pure copper and sulfur dioxide gas.
  • When heated, baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate) decomposes to form the products sodium carbonate, carbon dioxide, and water.
slide48
(11)Write and balance equations for the following reactions.
  • Iron metal and chlorine gas react to form solid iron(III) chloride.
  • Solid aluminum carbonate decomposes to form solid aluminum oxide and carbon dioxide gas.
  • Solid magnesium reacts with aqueous silver nitrate to form solid silver and aqueous magnesium nitrate.
slide49
12)Balance the following equations.
  • SO2 + O2 → SO3
  • Fe2O3 + H2 → Fe + H2O
  • P + O2 → P4O10
  • Al + N2 → AlN
slide50
When hydrogen and oxygen are mixed, a spark will initiate a rapid reaction. The product of the reaction is water. This is the equation for the burning of hydrogen:
slide52
Classifying reactions
  • The five general types of reaction are combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion
slide53
combination reaction
  • a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance; also called a synthesis reaction
slide54
2Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s)
  • Notice that in this reaction, as in all combination reactions, the product is a single substance (MgO), which is a compound. The reactants in this combination reaction (Mg and O2) are two elements
slide55
When a Group A metal and a nonmetal react, the product is a compound consisting of the metal cation and the nonmetal anion.
  • 2K(s) + Cl2(g) → 2KCl(s)
slide56
When two nonmetals react in a combination reaction, more than one product is often possible.
  • S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g) sulfur dioxide
  • 2S(s) + 3O2(g) → 2SO3(g) sulfur trioxide
slide57
More than one product may also result from the combination reaction of a transition metal and a nonmetal.
  • Fe(s) + S(s) → FeS(s) iron(II) sulfide
  • 2Fe(s) + 3S(s) → Fe2S3(s) iron(III) sulfide
slide62
decomposition reaction
  • a chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into two or more simpler products
slide67
single-replacement reaction
  • a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound; also called a displacement reaction
slide71
You can identify a single-replacement reaction by noting that both the reactants and the products consist of an element and a compound. In the equation above, zinc and copper change places. The reacting element Zn replaces copper in the reactant compound Cu(NO3)2. The products are the element Cu and the compound Zn(NO3)2.
slide72
Whether one metal will displace another metal from a compound depends upon the relative reactivities of the two metals.
slide73
activity series
  • a list of elements in order of decreasing activity; the activity series of halogens is Fl, Cl, Br, I
slide75
A halogen can also replace another halogen from a compound. The activity of the halogens decreases as you go down Group 7A of the periodic table—fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.
slide76
Bromine is more active than iodine, so this reaction occurs:
  • Br2(aq) + NaI(aq) → NaBr(aq) + I2(aq)
  • But bromine is less active than chlorine, so this reaction does not occur:
  • Br2(aq) + NaCl(aq) → No reaction
slide81
double-replacement reaction
  • a chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions between two compounds
slide82
Double-replacement reactions are also referred to as double-displacement reactions. They generally take place in aqueous solution and often produce a precipitate, a gas, or a molecular compound such as water.
slide84
(1) One of the products is only slightly soluble and precipitates from solution. For example, the reaction of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide and cadmium nitrate produces a yellow precipitate of cadmium sulfide.
  • Na2S(aq) + Cd(NO3)2(aq) → CdS(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
slide85
(2) One of the products is a gas. Poisonous hydrogen cyanide gas is produced when aqueous sodium cyanide is mixed with sulfuric acid.
  • 2NaCN(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → 2HCN(g) + Na2SO4(aq)
slide86
(3) One product is a molecular compound such as water. Combining solutions of calcium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid produces water.
  • Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l )
slide92
combustion reaction
  • a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light
slide95
2Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s)
  • S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g)
slide101
The number of elements and/or compounds reacting is a good indicator of possible reaction type and thus possible products
slide116
Classify each reaction and balance the equations.
  • C3H6 + O2 → CO2 + H2OHint
  • Al(OH)3 → Al2O3 + H2OHint
  • Li + O2 → Li2OHint
  • Zn + AgNO3 → Ag + Zn(NO3)2Hint
slide117
(25)Which of the five general types of reaction would most likely occur, given each set of reactants? What are the probable products?
  • an aqueous solution of two ionic compoundsHint
  • a single compoundHint
  • two elementsHint
  • oxygen and a compound of carbon and hydrogenHint
slide118
26)Complete and balance an equation for each reaction.
  • CaI2 + Hg(NO3)2 → (HgI2 precipitates.)
  • Al + Cl2 →
  • Ag + HCl →
  • C2H2 + O2 →
  • MgCl2 →
slide120
m
  • Reactions in Aqueous Solution
slide122
when sodium chloride dissolves in water, it separates into sodium ions (Na+(aq)) and chloride ions (Cl−(aq)). Similarly, silver nitrate dissociates into silver ions (Ag+(aq)) and nitrate ions (NO3−(aq)).
slide124
complete ionic equation
  • an equation that shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions
slide125
Ag+(aq) + NO3−(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq) → AgCl(s) + Na+(aq) + NO3−(aq)
  • Notice that the nitrate ion and the sodium ion appear unchanged on both sides of the equation. The equation can be simplified by eliminating these ions because they don’t participate in the reaction.
slide126
spectator ion
  • an ion that is not directly involved in a chemical reaction; an ion that does not change oxidation number or composition during a reaction
slide127
net ionic equation
  • an equation for a reaction in solution showing only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change
slide128
Ag +(aq) + Cl−(aq) → AgCl(s)
  • In writing balanced net ionic equations, you must make sure that the ionic charge is balanced. For the previous reaction, the net ionic charge on each side of the equation is zero and is therefore balanced.
slide129
But consider the skeleton equation for the reaction of lead with silver nitrate.
  • Pb(s) + AgNO3(aq) → Ag(s) + Pb(NO3)2(aq)
  • The nitrate ion is the spectator ion in this reaction. The net ionic equation is this.
slide131
Why is this equation unbalanced? Notice that a single unit of positive charge is on the reactant side of the equation. Two units of positive charge are on the product side. Placing the coefficient 2 in front of Ag+(aq) balances the charge. A coefficient of 2 in front of Ag(s) rebalances the atoms.
  • Pb(s) + 2Ag+(aq) → 2Ag(s) + Pb2+(aq) (balanced)
slide132
A net ionic equation shows only those particles involved in the reaction and is balanced with respect to both mass and charge.
slide138
You can predict the formation of a precipitate by using the general rules for solubility of ionic compounds.
slide143
When these four ions are mixed, the cations could change partners. If they did, the two new compounds that would form are NaNO3 and BaCO3. These are the only new combinations of cation and anion possible.
slide144
To find out if an exchange will occur, refer to Table 11.3, which gives guidelines for determining whether ion combinations are soluble. Recall that sodium is an alkali metal. Rows 1 and 2 tell you that sodium nitrate will not form a precipitate because alkali metal salts and nitrate salts are soluble.
slide145
Row 5 indicates that carbonates in general are insoluble. Barium carbonate will precipitate. In this reaction Na+ and NO3− are spectator ions. The net ionic equation for this reaction is as follows.
  • Ba2+(aq) + CO32−(aq) → BaCO3(s)
slide146
(30) Key Concept What is a net ionic equation?Hint
  • (31) Key Concept How can you predict the formation of a precipitate in a double-replacement reaction?Hint
slide147
32)Write a balanced net ionic equation for each reaction.
  • Pb(NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → PbSO4(s) + HNO3(aq)
  • Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) + HCl(aq) → PbCl2(s) + HC2H3O2(aq)
  • Na3PO4(aq) + FeCl3(aq) → NaCl(aq) + FePO4(s)
  • (NH4)2S(aq) + Co(NO3)2(aq) → CoS(s) + NH4NO3(aq)
slide148
(33)Write a balanced net ionic equation for each reaction. Identify the spectator ions in each reaction.
  • HCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) →
  • Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) + LiCl(aq) →
  • Na3PO4(aq) + CrCl3(aq) →
slide149
(33)Write a balanced net ionic equation for each reaction. Identify the spectator ions in each reaction.
  • HCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) →
  • Pb(C2H3O2)2(aq) + LiCl(aq) →
  • Na3PO4(aq) + CrCl3(aq) →
slide150
(35)Will a precipitate form when the following aqueous solutions of ionic compounds are mixed?
  • AgNO3 and Na2SO4
  • NH4Cl and Ba(NO3)2
  • CaCl2 and K2SO4
  • Pb(NO3)2 and HCl
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