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Authorship, Academic Integrity, and Ethics. Dr. Heather Blain Vorhies [email protected] Office of Writing Initiatives The Graduate School 5 September 2013. Citation provides researchers and scholars with information to verify and build upon knowledge.

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Authorship academic integrity and ethics

Authorship, Academic Integrity, and Ethics

Dr. Heather Blain Vorhies

[email protected]

Office of Writing Initiatives

The Graduate School

5 September 2013

Some b asic guidelines

Some Basic Guidelines

Readers ethical assumptions of authors adapted from harmon and gross

Readers expect that authors did what they say they did (Readers assume no data was fabricated or “lost”).

Readers assume authors have no conflicts of interest.

Readers assume authors are not taking credit for others’ work (Others’ work will be correctly paraphrased or directly quoted).

Readers expect authors to be able to produce relevant data if questioned about their work.

Readers’ Ethical Assumptions of Authors (adapted from Harmon and Gross)

Some citation examples from physical review d

In-Text (Readers assume no data was fabricated or “lost”).


Some Citation Examples from Physical Review D

Common knowledge

  • Be wary of categorizing something as “common knowledge.” (Readers assume no data was fabricated or “lost”).

  • Many concepts and facts you might think of as common knowledge are not.

  • Even if a piece of information appears in many places (websites, textbooks), it does not mean the information is common knowledge.

Common Knowledge

The common knowledge test

  • Identify a concept that you would categorize as common knowledge.

  • Pull up several recent journal articles on the same concept (at least 3).

  • Do sentences with this concept include an in-text citation? How about somewhere in the paragraph? Is there an author name? A year?

  • Carbon is the building block for life.

  • The A567N52 sequencing chain has been found to impact potassium levels.

The Common Knowledge Test

Non attribution

  • Non-attribution is a serious academic integrity violation. knowledge.

  • It happens when a writer does all or any of the following:

    • Does not list the source text in the references and include an in-text citation.

    • Copies and pastes the source text into a new text.

  • Never copy and paste text from one source into another unless

    • 1. The source text is your own and

    • 2. The source text is unpublished (in any form) and

    • 3. Other authors know that you are copying and pasting from a previous, unpublished text and

    • 4. You did not submit the source text for an assignment.


Copying and pasting

Did you write the original text (the one being copied)? knowledge.



I wrote this outside of a class

Do not copy and paste

I wrote this for a class

It hasn’t been published

It was a collaborative project

It’s been published

It was an individual project

Do not copy and paste

Copying and Pasting

Do not copy and paste

You may copy and paste ONLY if you have permission to do so from each and every group member

You may copy and paste

Two other k inds of academic i ntegrity violations

Patch-writing knowledge.


  • Patch-writing mimics the wording of the original text; some words may be changed, but the initial sentence structure remains.

  • Cheating involves (among other things) submitting other’s work as your own.

Two Other Kinds of Academic Integrity Violations

Patch writing
Patch-Writing knowledge.

Since QCD radiation implies energy-momentum flow, the

entire energy distribution in the detector (upon reconstructing and removing X from the list of calorimeter hits) can be expected to provide a superior discriminant compared to

jjin an inclusive selection.

The energy distribution in the detector was expected to give a better discriminant.

Reviewing your w ork for academic i ntegrity

What am I doing in this sentence?

  • Am I providing data? Am I referencing another’s work?

  • Am I paraphrasing from a text?

  • Am I making a comment?

  • Am I making an argument or summarizing another’s idea?

Reviewing Your Work for Academic Integrity

Some reminders

  • Always explicit when checking if it is ok to use your material elsewhere.

    • “I would like to take the exact wording from pages 41-43 and insert these sentences into an article I am writing for publication.”

  • You must have all group members’ explicit permission to use material (writing and figures) elsewhere if the source text is a group document.

  • Never copy and paste unless specific criteria are met (Refer to the copy and paste flow chart)

  • Do not patch-write. It is an academic integrity violation.

  • Always cite your sources.

Some Reminders

Some u seful resources

  • The Craft of Scientific Communication knowledge.(Harmon and Gross)

  • Overview of Common Scholarly Procedures (Duke University)

  • On Being a Scientist (National Academy of Sciences)

  • Ethics in Publication (Elsevier)

  • American Physical Society Publication Practices Tutorial

  • “The Science of Science Writing” (George Gopen and Judith Swan)

Some Useful Resources

Writing fellows email gradwritingfellows@umd edu knowledge.

Writing Fellows (Email: [email protected])