THOMAS MALTHUS. MALTHUSIAN AND NEO-MALTHUSIAN THEORIES. Who is Thomas Malthus and what did he predict?. What factors influenced Thomas Malthus’s thinking?. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) lived in England during the British Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions:
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) lived in England during the British Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions:
The British Agricultural Revolution (1700-1900):
Population Increase: the population of England and Wales, which had remained steady at 6 million from 1700 to 1740, rose dramatically after 1740. The population of England had more than doubled from 8.3 million in 1801 to 16.8 million in 1851 and, by 1901, had nearly doubled again to 30.5 million.
British Industrial Revolution: The agricultural revolution supported unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution.
Based on his observations, what did Malthus conclude?Gross domestic product (GDP) refers to the market value of all goods and services produced within a country in a given period. It is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living.
In An Essay on the Principle of Population, published in 1798, Malthus claimed that the population was growing more rapidly than the Earth’s food supply because population increased geometrically, whereas food supply increased arithmetically.
Malthus’s reasoning: food production grows by ADDITION of more acreage into cultivation, whereas population grows by MULTIPLICATION of human beings.
Malthus’s idea of geometric population growth is now commonly referred to as EXPONTENTIAL GROWTH.
HOW CAN HIS THEORY BE REPRESENTED ON A GRAPH?
Malthus predicted that overpopulation and lack of food would lead widespread starvation and diseaseLooking that the numbers and J-curve of population growth, he figured that population was going to catch up quickly.
What factors increased food production and why?
Atmospheric (unfixed) nitrogen is effectively unlimited (forming over 70% of the atmospheric gases), but this is not in a form useful to plants. To make nitrogen accessible to plants requires nitrogen fixation (conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to a plant-accessible form).
2. Malthus assumed that humans have no control over their reproductive behavior. He did not foresee that population growth would slow down because of
#1 SUSTAINABILITY: When the population reaches 10 billion, there may be problems keeping up with food demand.
#2 INCREASING Per Capita DEMAND FOR FOOD: Globally, the amount of food consumed per person is rising.
The average First World citizen consumes around eight times the amount of food and resources that a person in the Third World does.
In 1970, the US had the 26th highest daily caloric intake.Thirty-three years later, the US had risen to #1 (>3600 calories per day).Our Canadian neighbors to the North haven't fared much better, rising from the 33rd most caloric country to #2.In countries that are shaded yellow, per capita calorie consumption is <1600/day.
#3 Natural Resource Depletion:
Natural resources that are being depleted include:
With increased per capita meat consumption, and an ever growing population we can only expect to see more deforestation in the future.