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Resource Unit: Civil War

Grade 8

Beth Luersman, Lindsey Miller and Corrie Miller


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Introduction

  • When we think of the United States today, we don’t think in terms of North and South, Confederate and Union, or free states and slave states. Rather, we visualize America as a whole, unified nation of states.

  • However, there once was a time of crisis for our nation when our people were divided amongst an issue that almost caused the collapse of our great country. This event was known as the Civil War.


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Continued…

  • The Civil War was a time for great growth and change for our nation.

  • The war lasted from 1861-1865 and caused a lasting affect on Northern and Southern regional borders, political party views, culture, family values, and social norms.


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Summary of Subject Matter

  • This resource unit is designed to go into great detail about the Civil War and can be incorporated into an eighth grade classroom. In the following slides, there is information about the Civil War, important vocabulary terms, activities, and resources for both the teacher and the students.


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Vocabulary

  • Key Battles: Fort Sumter, Battle of Bull Run, Roanoke Island, Pleasant Hill, Gettysburg, and Appomattox.

  • Abolitionist

  • Border states

  • Confederacy/Confederate

  • Confederate States of America

  • Copperhead

  • Dysentery

  • Emancipation Proclamation

  • Fugitive Slave Act


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Vocabulary cont.

  • Mason Dixon Line

  • Rebel

  • Slave state

  • Union

  • Yankee

  • Key People: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Jefferson Davis, Harriet Tubman, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, Frederick Douglass


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Objectives

  • Students will be able to interpret and create a timeline of the important dates and events of the Civil War.

  • Students will be able to gather and research information on key figures of the Civil War.

  • Students will be able to accurately display key aspects of the Civil War and explain them in detail.

  • When given a map, students will be able to find key battles, locate Northern and Southern states, and Border states.

  • Students will be able to identify view points from many people during the Civil War.

  • Students will be able to explain how the Underground Railroad impacted both the North and South and how slaves used this to escape to freedom.

  • Students will be able to debate how significant the banning of slavery was to both the North and the South.

  • Students will be able to identify the significance of the Gettysburg Address and what it meant to the Northern states and what it meant to the Southern states.


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Day 1

  • Activity

  • Introduction: Students will be divided up into 5 small groups, each group representing a year of the Civil War 1861-1865. The Instructor will briefly discuss the battle that actually started the Civil War (Fort Sumter).

  • Development: As a group, students will create a timeline of important events of the Civil War that occurred during their specific year (including battles, surrenders, and specific political changes example: Gettysburg Address).

  • Students will use this website as a reference tool to help create their timeline.

  • http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/tl1865.html

  • Additional sources may be used for this project. The goal for this project is for students to have an understanding of the major events that happened throughout the years of the war. Students will use large poster boards to present.

  • Culminating Activity: Finished products will be hung up in order around the classroom so students can refer back to these dates throughout the unit.


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Activity 2

The teacher will discuss which states were Northern, Southern, or border states during the Civil War.

Once classroom discussion on the topic is finished, students will be given their own blank maps to label each state during the Civil War time period and also color states to identify them as Northern, Southern, or border states.

The goal for this activity is for students to get a thorough understanding of each state’s role in the Civil War.

Day 2


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Day 3

  • Activity 3

  • Introduction: Students will read the “Ain’t I A Woman?” speech to get a feel for the feelings of the time period.

  • Development: Students will be broken up into groups of 4 or 5.

  • Each group will be assigned a key figure from the battle to research on.

  • Students will be allowed library access to look at books and also for computer use to research their historical person.

  • Culminating activity: Students will present their findings on a poster constructed by the group. Students will get a better understanding of the key figures from the war by getting a closer look at their importance to the war.


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Activity 4

Introduction: The teacher will describe to students how many past Underground Railroad stops can be found right here in the Miami Valley.

Development: Students will take maps to draw out different routes from the South to the North that were used in the Underground Railroad. Internet sources can also be used.

Culminating Activity: Students will determine how many miles the slaves traveled just to make it to freedom from some of the major Southern cities such as Montgomery and Atlanta.

Students should get a general idea of how desperate and hopeful these people were to escape to their freedom.

Day 4


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Day 5

  • Activity 5

  • Introduction: Several passages from the book Bull Run will be read aloud to students. These passages will cover different viewpoints from the war: Northern and Southern soldiers, slaves, nurses, and generals.

  • Development: Students will pick two contrasting views and do a double-sided journal of the two figures. Students should include the opinion of both figures on the same issue.

  • Culminating Activity: Students will share with a partner their own thoughts on what it would have been like to be in a certain position during the Civil War.


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Day 6

  • Activity 6

  • Introduction: The teacher will describe some of the artifacts that students can see when visiting the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center.

  • Development: As a class, students and teachers will visit the museum and all of the historical artifacts from the Civil War. Students will be able to walk around and experience history themselves.


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Evaluation: Sample Test Questions

Multiple Choice

  • When the Civil War began,

    • Both sides were prepared for a long and drawn-out war.

    • The South’s greatest strength was its military leadership.

    • Southerners believed they could win by capturing Washington, D.C.

    • Northerners were reluctant to volunteer for military service.

  • Hopes on both sides for a quick victory ended with the

    • Battle between the Merrimac and the Monitor.

    • Battle of Gettysburg.

    • Battle of Bull Run.

    • Battle of Antietam.

  • Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation declared

    • All salves to be forever free.

    • Slaves in Union slave states to be free.

    • Slaves in Confederate states to be free.

    • Slaves in U.S. territories to be free.

  • The Battle of Gettysburg was a turning point in the war because

    • It triggered a four-day draft riot in New York City.

    • The outcome convinced European nations to help the Confederacy.

    • Southern troops reached their northernmost point in Union territory.

    • Lee lost so many troops that he would never again invade the North.

  • The terms of surrender General Grant offered to General Lee were designed to

    • End the war without causing further suffering or hatred.

    • Convince northerners that the heavy costs of the war were justified.

    • Punish southerners who had fought for the Confederacy.

    • Continue his policy of accepting nothing less than unconditional surrender.


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Evaluation Continued…

  • Objective Questions

  • Name two advantages the North had over the South during the Civil War.

  • Why was the North more equipped to fight a long war than the South?

  • Short Essay Questions

  • Explain in detail how the first draft law came into effect and what it stated for both the North and the South. Also, because of the first draft law, why was the Civil War known as, “a rich man’s war and a poor man’s fight”?

  • Describe in detail what kind of problems Lincoln faced on the Union home front.


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Instructional Resources

  • Teacher References:

    • Civil War Preservation Trust

      • Very Informative! This website offers a wealth of information about historical figures who were a very big part of the Civil War.

        www.civilwar.org/historyclassroom/hc_glossary.htm

    • Aboard the Underground Railroad: This site will be helpful to show students a map of the various Underground Railroad trails. A student can click on a state, and it brings them to a detailed list of all the known houses that were involved in the Railroad in that state.

      http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/underground/routes.htm

    • Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution:

      • This is a great website for ideas and lesson plans. This site has great activities for all of the content standards!

        http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/ntti/resources/lessons/h_oldnew/b.html


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Teacher References cont.

  • The Civil War Home Page

    • This page offers a variety of information on the Civil War. It includes related links, photos, letters and diaries, documents, and battle reports. www.civil-war.net

  • The History Place-U.S. Civil War 1861-1865

    • This provides you with a timeline with many original photographs and thought provoking quotes. www.historyplace.com/civilwar

  • Selected Civil War Photographs Home Page

    • This site is provided by the Library of Congress, providing an area to search for over 1100 photographs. This will also allow for students to be able to see what it would be like to be a photographer during the Civil War.

    • www.memory.loc.gov


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Instructional References cont.

  • Student References:

  • The Gettysburg AddressBy Abraham Lincoln, Michael McCurdy (Illustrator)

    • This picture book is a great hook for students. This will give students a

    • Visual of Abraham Lincoln and other items while they listen to the speech.

  • Just a Few Words, Mr. Lincoln:  The Story of the Gettysburg Address by Jean Fritz

    • This book gives an easy explanation about the Gettysburg Address. Students

    • Can use this resource to further their understanding or to use with students

    • That might not grasp the concept.

  • If You Traveled on the Underground Railroadby Ellen Levine, Larry Johnson (Illustrator)

    • This book gives students an idea of what the underground railroad would be

    • Like. This picture book help aid to the students understanding.

  • Harriet Tubman Wanted Dead or Alive: The True Story of Harriet Tubmanby Ann McGovern, Richard M. Powers (Illustrator)

    • This picture book tells the story of Harriet Tubman and her struggles

    • Through the Underground Railroad. This book would be an excellent way to

    • Start the lesson involving either the URR or Harriet Tubman.


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Student Resources cont.

  • * If You Lived at the Time of the Civil WarBy Kay Moore

    • This book gives students an idea of what it was like to live during the Civil War. Again, this would be a great opener for a second day on the unit and could lead to a variety of writing activities.

  • * My Brother's Keeper:  Virginia's Civil War Diary, Mary Pope Osbourne

    • This is a book about a little girl named Virginia who is entrusted with her fathers journal. He tells her to write in it. Virginia writes about Gettysburg and how the people there are not happy and she actually watches the battle and writes about it in her journal. Very touching.

  • * Ayres, Katherine. North by Night: A Story of the Underground Railroad, Delacorte.

    • Freedom & independence, courage, loneliness, and making choices are themes that are related through journal entries and letters of the main character, Lucinda Spencer. Students will learn what life was like during the Civil War for those helping escaped slaves.

  • * Crane, Stephen. Red Badge of Courage, Permabound, 1956.

    • Students will learn about the courage that one young Union soldier had to learn during the war.. This would be a good selection in a literature circle in the language arts classroom.


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    Student Resources cont.

    • English, June A. and Thomas D. Jones. Scholastic Encyclopedia of the United States at War, Scholastic, 1998.

      • This encyclopedia provides a broad picture of the United States' role, including biographies of the notable figures and quiet heroes, discussions of the mood of the country, timelines, maps, descriptions of weapons, eyewitness accounts, and more.

  • Hunt, Irene. Across Five Aprils, Berkley Publishing Company, 1962

    • This story helps students to understand what things were like for those who did not fight in the war. Students see the complexity of small decisions.

  • A LIGHT IN THE STORM: The Civil War Diary of Amelia Martinby Karen Hesse

    • This book is written from the point of view of a young girl living in Delaware and seeing and hearing about the North and South battles. The book also contains historical photos

  • DEAR AMERICA Seriesby Scholastic, Susan Campbell Bartoletti

    • This is a diary style book where one girl is writing about the Civil War. This book would again be a great book for a literature circle group.


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    Media References

    • * McCullough, David G., Geoffrey C. Ward, and David Grubin, contributors. Abraham and Mary Lincoln: A House Divided . Bloomington, Ind.: David Grubin Productions; [Alexandria, Va.]: PBS Video; Boston: WGBH Educational Foundation, 2001. 3 videocassettes (180 minutes).Lockwood Microforms and Newspapers VHS E457.25

    • Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders (Manuscripts)

      • Ezra Warner, Louisiana State University Press, 1964

    • * “Safe Passage: The Underground Railroad in Southwestern Ohio.” (Multimedia Unit)

      • This is an incredibly extensive program with CD-Rom, VHS cassettes, novels, and instructional materials that a teacher can practically pick up and implement directly into their classroom. It’s even more awesome because it deals with the area in which we actually live!

    • * “Twelve Roads to Gettysburg.” Queue. (CD-Rom)

      • This program depicts the details of one of the most significant battles in U.S. history by using a variety of techniques from animation to actual music from the period.

    • * “Civil War: America’s Epic Struggle.” Multieducator, Inc. (CD-Rom)

      • This program is amazing. It has any information you could possibly want about the Civil War. From battles to generals to causes and effects, it is listed and explained in an inviting manner.

    *


    Student resources cont22 l.jpg

    Student Resources cont.

    • * If You Lived at the Time of the Civil WarBy Kay Moore

      • This book gives students an idea of what it was like to live during the Civil War. Again, this would be a great opener for a second day on the unit and could lead to a variety of writing activities.

    • * My Brother's Keeper:  Virginia's Civil War Diary, Mary Pope Osbourne

      • This is a book about a little girl named Virginia who is entrusted with her fathers journal. He tells her to write in it. Virginia writes about Gettysburg and how the people there are not happy and she actually watches the battle and writes about it in her journal. Very touching.

    • * Ayres, Katherine. North by Night: A Story of the Underground Railroad, Delacorte.

      • Freedom & independence, courage, loneliness, and making choices are themes that are related through journal entries and letters of the main character, Lucinda Spencer. Students will learn what life was like during the Civil War for those helping escaped slaves.

  • * Crane, Stephen. Red Badge of Courage, Permabound, 1956.

    • Students will learn about the courage that one young Union soldier had to learn during the war.. This would be a good selection in a literature circle in the language arts classroom.


  • Student resources cont23 l.jpg

    Student Resources cont.

    • English, June A. and Thomas D. Jones. Scholastic Encyclopedia of the United States at War, Scholastic, 1998.

      • This encyclopedia provides a broad picture of the United States' role, including biographies of the notable figures and quiet heroes, discussions of the mood of the country, timelines, maps, descriptions of weapons, eyewitness accounts, and more.

  • Hunt, Irene. Across Five Aprils, Berkley Publishing Company, 1962

    • This story helps students to understand what things were like for those who did not fight in the war. Students see the complexity of small decisions.

  • A LIGHT IN THE STORM: The Civil War Diary of Amelia Martinby Karen Hesse

    • This book is written from the point of view of a young girl living in Delaware and seeing and hearing about the North and South battles. The book also contains historical photos

  • DEAR AMERICA Seriesby Scholastic, Susan Campbell Bartoletti

    • This is a diary style book where one girl is writing about the Civil War. This book would again be a great book for a literature circle group.


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    Media Resources Cont.

    • “Abraham Lincoln.” Nest Entertainment, Inc. Animated Hero Classics serioes. (VHS tape)

      • This video highlights the major accomplishments of Abraham Lincoln. Not only that, but the information is presented in a fun cartoon that will make learning from the video more enjoyable and engaging.

    • Africans in America: America's Journey through Slavery Bagwell, Orlando, Susan Bellows, Steve Fayer, Angela Bassett, Bernice Johnson Reagon, and Michael Chin, contributors.. VHS

      • Portrays the lives of some African American people during the time of the Civil War and Slavery.

    • Benson, Allan, Melvyn Bragg, and Toni Moirrison, contributors. Toni Morrison . Chicago: Home Vision, 1987. 1 videocassette

      • Discussion of Toni Morrison and how slavery has impacted her writing and the impact of slavery on so many African Americans during the Civil War

    • Civil War Journal Glover, Danny, contributor. VHS

      • Episodes cover such topics as: Stonewall Jackson, Fort Sumter, the Monitor versus the CSS Virginia, John Singleton Mosby, the 54 th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, photographer Alexander Gardner, John Brown, 1 st Bull Run, Pickett's charge, Gettysburg, and West Point classmates as enemies.

    • Digging for Slaves . Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities, 1992. 1 videocassette

      • " Provides many fascinating and surprising details at excavations of 18th-century slave quarters on Middleburg Plantation near Charleston; at Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson, whose slave holdings seem so irreconcilable with his expressed views on human freedom; and at Colonial Williamsburg, which until recently neglected to show the lives of the slaves, who made up over half the town's population."


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    Media References cont.

    • Civil War American History Battle Map Pictures

      • Civil War in American Battle Maps and Timelines 1860 to 1865 Documents Pictures.www.americancivilwar.com

    • Civil War Index Page

      • Source for collectors researching the Civil War. Categorized links, including archives, bibliographies, books, and "Gateways" category.www.homepages.dsu.edu

    • Civil War Women

      • Resources available online from the Special Collections Library at Duke University about different women alive during the Civil War.www.scriptorium.lib.duke.edu

    • The Civil War- PBS

      • Includes images, maps, biographies, historical documents, bibliography, related links, fact page and section for educators.www.pbs.org/civilwar

    • The Civil War Traveler

      • Features a summary of historical interpretive signs and maps for civil war touring trails from Pennsylvania to South Carolina.www.civilwartraveler.com


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    Media References cont.

    • Historic Preservation of American Civil War Battlefields

      • This private, non-profit membership organization is working toward the preservation of the most historic Civil War battlefield sites.www.civilwar.org

    • Civil War Soldiers and Sailor System

      • Comprehensive research tool for searching the records of the soldiers and sailors who fought in the Civil War.www.itd.nps.gov

    • Civil War at Smithsonian

      • Examines the Civil War through the Smithsonian Institutes extensive collections. It includes resources, a detailed timeline, and images with detailed ...www.civilwar.si.edu

    • American Civil War Collections

      • Civil War letters and diary entries include transcriptions and digital images of the manuscripts.www.etext.virginia.edu/civilwar

    • USA History: American Civil War

      • British site includes articles about major battles, political and military figures, writers, artists, photographers, the role of women, issues, ...www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcivilwarC.htm


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    Media Resources Cont.

    • “Abraham Lincoln.” Nest Entertainment, Inc. Animated Hero Classics serioes. (VHS tape)

      • This video highlights the major accomplishments of Abraham Lincoln. Not only that, but the information is presented in a fun cartoon that will make learning from the video more enjoyable and engaging.

    • Africans in America: America's Journey through Slavery Bagwell, Orlando, Susan Bellows, Steve Fayer, Angela Bassett, Bernice Johnson Reagon, and Michael Chin, contributors.. VHS

      • Portrays the lives of some African American people during the time of the Civil War and Slavery.

    • Benson, Allan, Melvyn Bragg, and Toni Moirrison, contributors. Toni Morrison . Chicago: Home Vision, 1987. 1 videocassette

      • Discussion of Toni Morrison and how slavery has impacted her writing and the impact of slavery on so many African Americans during the Civil War

    • Civil War Journal Glover, Danny, contributor. VHS

      • Episodes cover such topics as: Stonewall Jackson, Fort Sumter, the Monitor versus the CSS Virginia, John Singleton Mosby, the 54 th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, photographer Alexander Gardner, John Brown, 1 st Bull Run, Pickett's charge, Gettysburg, and West Point classmates as enemies.

    • Digging for Slaves . Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities, 1992. 1 videocassette

      • " Provides many fascinating and surprising details at excavations of 18th-century slave quarters on Middleburg Plantation near Charleston; at Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson, whose slave holdings seem so irreconcilable with his expressed views on human freedom; and at Colonial Williamsburg, which until recently neglected to show the lives of the slaves, who made up over half the town's population."


    Media references cont28 l.jpg

    Media References cont.

    • Civil War American History Battle Map Pictures

      • Civil War in American Battle Maps and Timelines 1860 to 1865 Documents Pictures.www.americancivilwar.com

    • Civil War Index Page

      • Source for collectors researching the Civil War. Categorized links, including archives, bibliographies, books, and "Gateways" category.www.homepages.dsu.edu

    • Civil War Women

      • Resources available online from the Special Collections Library at Duke University about different women alive during the Civil War.www.scriptorium.lib.duke.edu

    • The Civil War- PBS

      • Includes images, maps, biographies, historical documents, bibliography, related links, fact page and section for educators.www.pbs.org/civilwar

    • The Civil War Traveler

      • Features a summary of historical interpretive signs and maps for civil war touring trails from Pennsylvania to South Carolina.www.civilwartraveler.com


    Media references cont29 l.jpg

    Media References cont.

    • Historic Preservation of American Civil War Battlefields

      • This private, non-profit membership organization is working toward the preservation of the most historic Civil War battlefield sites.www.civilwar.org

    • Civil War Soldiers and Sailor System

      • Comprehensive research tool for searching the records of the soldiers and sailors who fought in the Civil War.www.itd.nps.gov

    • Civil War at Smithsonian

      • Examines the Civil War through the Smithsonian Institutes extensive collections. It includes resources, a detailed timeline, and images with detailed ...www.civilwar.si.edu

    • American Civil War Collections

      • Civil War letters and diary entries include transcriptions and digital images of the manuscripts.www.etext.virginia.edu/civilwar

    • USA History: American Civil War

      • British site includes articles about major battles, political and military figures, writers, artists, photographers, the role of women, issues, ...www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcivilwarC.htm


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    Intervention/Adaptation

    • During class activities, students who need extra help will be guided along more closely by the teacher.

    • Students who finished early will be provided an opportunity to assist others who are struggling with their work.

    • If a student needs to be challenged more, we would have them go one step further in their research. Instead of just getting the normal facts about a Civil War Soldier or other important figure, they would also have to write a journal entry from the perspective of the person they researched.

    • For a student that needs more help, I would give them websites to look at and a note sheet that has blanks in it for research. This way their search is narrowed and more comprehensible.


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