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II. The Living World. By Jessie McClure and Megan Garrett. Biological Populations and communities. Organisms occur in populations, communities, and ecosystems A population is all the members of a species living in a given area at the same time

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II. The Living World

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Ii the living world

II. The Living World

By Jessie McClure and Megan Garrett

Biological populations and communities

Biological Populations and communities

  • Organisms occur in populations, communities, and ecosystems

  • A population is all the members of a species living in a given area at the same time

  • All of the populations in one area make up a biological community

  • An ecosystem consists of the biological community as well as the physical environment (biotic and abiotic factors)

Full spectrum

Full spectrum



  • Species

  • Population

  • Biological Community

  • Ecosystem

  • Producers

  • Productivity

  • Biomass

  • Detritivores

  • Food Chain

  • Food Web

  • Trophic Level

  • Consumer

  • Herbivores

  • Carnivores

  • Omnivores

  • Scavengers

  • Decomposer

Community properties affect species and populations

Community Properties affect species and populations

  • Productivity is a measure of biological activity

  • Community Structure describes spatial distribution of organisms

  • Complexity is an important ecological indicator

  • Edges and boundaries affect communities

Ecological niche

Ecological niche

  • An ecological niche is the functional role and position of a species or population within a community or ecosystem including what resources are used, how and when it used these resources as well as how it interacts with other populations.



  • Primary Productivity

  • Abundance

  • Diversity

  • Complexity

  • Edge Effects

  • Random Distribution

  • Uniform Distribution

  • Clustered Distribution

  • Ecotones



Tropical rainforests are structurally and ecologically complex

Species interactions

Species Interactions

  • Competition leads to resource allocation

  • Predation affects species relationships

  • Certain Adaptations Help Avoid Predation

  • Symbiosis Involves Intimate Relations Among Species

Keystone species

Keystone Species

The Otters protects kelp forests by eating urchins that would otherwise destroy the kelp



  • Adaptation

  • Natural Selection

  • Selection Pressures

  • Tolerance Limits

  • Indicators

  • Habitat

  • Ecological Niche

  • Competitive Exclusion Principle

  • Resource Partitioning

  • Speciation

  • Geographic Isolation

  • Allopatric speciation

  • Sympatric Speciation

  • Binomials

Allopatric v sympatric speciation

Allopatric V. sympatric speciation

Geographic barriers influence speciation

Biomes to know

Biomes to Know

Major Terrestrial

  • Tropical Forest

  • Tropical Savanna and Grassland

  • Deserts

  • Temperate Grasslands

  • Temperate Shrublands

  • Temperate Forests (Deciduous and Coniferous)

  • Boreal Forests

  • Tundra



  • Biome

  • Vertical Zonation

  • Cloud Forests

  • Tropical Seasonal Forests

  • Grasslands

  • Savannas

  • Chaparral

  • Deciduous

  • Coniferous

  • Taiga

Boreal forest taiga

Boreal Forest/Taiga

Characterized by conifers at high latitudes

Cloud forest of costa rica

Cloud Forest of costa rica

Characterized by persistent, frequent or seasonal low-level cloud cover

Biomes to know1

Biomes to Know

Major Aquatic

  • Streams/ Rivers

  • Lakes/ Ponds

  • Wetlands

  • Estuaries

  • Coastal

  • Coral Reefs

  • Open Ocean



  • Phytoplankton

  • Benthic

  • Pelagic

  • Coral Bleaching

  • Mangroves

  • Salt Marshes

  • Tide Pools

  • Barrier Islands

  • Thermocline

  • Swamps

  • Marshes

  • Bogs

  • Fens



Characterized by trees that grow in salt water

Ocean zones

Ocean zones

Pelagic and benthic



  • Chemosynthesis

  • Photosynthesis

  • Chlorophyll

Species diversity

Species Diversity

  • Evolution produces species diversity

  • Natural selection leads to evolution

  • All species live within limits

  • Speciation maintains species diversity

  • Evolution is still at work



  • Green plants get energy from the sun

  • Photosynthesis captures energy from the sun

  • Extremophiles live in severe condition

  • Process:

    • Occurs in organelles called chloroplast in plant cells

    • Begins with light dependent reactions that occur when the chloroplast is receiving light

    • Enzymes split water molecules and release O2

    • 6H2O + 6CO2 + solar energy  C6 H12 O6 (sugar) + 6O2



Cellular respiration

Cellular Respiration

A diagram of the process

Cellular respiration1

Cellular Respiration

  • Respiration releases the energy gained during photosynthesis

  • The Process:

    • It involves splitting carbon and hydrogen atoms from the sugar molecule

    • They are then recombined with oxygen to create carbon dioxide and water

    • C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + released energy

Cellular respiration2

Cellular respiration



Two types/stages:

Glycolysis: anaerobic, does not need oxygen

Aerobic also called the Kreb’s cycle, requires oxygen

Generates energy

Crucial to decomposition

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2f7YwCtHcgk

Food chains and food webs

Food chains and food webs

Food chains are a linked feeding series

Food webs are interconnected food chains

Ecological pyramids describe trophic levels

Ecological pyramids describe Trophic Levels

Grass grows. Rabbit eats grass. Fox eats Rabbit. Wolf Eats Rabbit





  • Two main factors give us biodiversity:

    Natural selection



    (through sexual reproduction)

Galapagos finches

Galapagos Finches

Natural Selection Explains why they have different beaks(based on different available food sources)

Natural selection

Natural selection

  • The organisms with preferable traits for their environment are the ones that evade predators longer and survive longer and live to produce offspring.

  • For example of the mice you see in the picture the lighter colored mice are better adapted to living on sand dunes where as the darker colored mice are more likely to survive on the darker soil nearby.

  • Article:

  • http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2009/08/mice-living-in-sand-hills-quickly-evolved-lighter-coloration/



  • A theory that explains how random changes in genetic material & competition for scarce resources cause the species to change gradually over generations



  • Intraspecific Competition

  • Interspecific Competition

  • Predator-Mediated Competition

  • Coevolution

  • Batesian Mimicry

  • Müllerian Mimicry

  • Symbiosis

  • Mutualism

  • Commensalism

  • Parasitism

Range of tolerance

Range of Tolerance

Ecosystem services

Ecosystem services

Climate shifts

Climate shifts

  • If gradual -> Natural selection -> favorable traits for new climate

  • If rapid -> mass die outs-> possible extinction

Possible explanations for climate shifts:

  • Changes in the sun’s energy output

  • Shifts in the moon’s orbit, altering tides & circulation

  • Milankovitch cycles: slight variations in the earth’s tilt and orbit, explain extreme shifts

  • Volcanos releasing large amounts of ash and sulfur, causing temperatures to drop quickly

Species movement

Species movement

  • Occurs when species migrate to a different climate because their original has become unsuitable

  • NPR recording on climate change & species movement

  • http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=95603499&m=95606687

Communities change over time

Communities Change over time

  • Communities develop in a sequence of stages

  • Ecological succession describes a history of community development

  • Appropriate disturbances can benefit communities

  • Introduced species can cause community change



  • Climax Community

  • Primary Succession

  • Secondary Succession

  • Pioneer Species

  • Disturbance

  • Disturbance-Adapted Species

Primary succession

Primary Succession

Begins bare of soil, ends with a community

Secondary succession

Secondary Succession

Resulting from a fire

Carbon cycle

Carbon Cycle

Cartoon on the carbon cycle (strange but helpful)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U3SZKJVKRxQ

Teacher/lecture style:


Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen cycle

  • Video of cycle including sources

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BosHU4ARR9w&feature=related

  • Teacher/lecture style:

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GU17Q10GEE8&feature=relmfu

Phosphorus cycle

Phosphorus cycle

  • Videos:

  • in short: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKkC2JpjaGc

  • In detail/lecture style: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gT3r2de8WqI

Sulfur cycle

Sulfur cycle



The water cycle

The water Cycle

The water cycle1

The Water cycle

  • Animated Water Cycle

  • (stop motion) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRWvovaHzkM&feature=related

  • Water Cycle Rap

    (surprisingly helpful for vocabulary)

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i3NeMVBcXXU&feature=related



  • Evaporation

  • Precipitation

  • Condensation

  • Sublimation

  • Assimliation

  • Nitrification

  • Denitrification

  • Abiotic

  • Biotic

Conservation of matter

Conservation of matter

  • Matter is neither created nor destroyed

    But rather recycled over and over again as chemical elements are used and reused by organisms

  • In other words…

    Matter can be combined and transformed in many different ways, but will never disappear



  • All living things are made of the same 6 elements that cycle and are reused over and over

  • CHNOPS! 

  • Carbon

  • Hydrogen

  • Nitrogen

  • Oxygen

  • Phosphorous

  • Sulfur

Notebook study tools for the living world

Notebook study tools forThe living world

  • Chapter 4 & 5 test

  • (remember) the Eco-Column Project

  • Climatogram worksheet

  • And of course any in-class notes

    (especially on videos)

  • Biomes worksheet

  • Login