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Washington State’s Changing Energy Picture. Changing Risk Picture. Presented by David Byers Response Manager Dept. of Ecology. Changing Energy Picture in Washington State. Crude Oil Types (Bitumen vs. Bakken ) Oil Behavior, Fate and Effects Oil Transportation Rail Pipeline

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Washington state s changing energy picture

Washington State’sChanging Energy Picture

Changing Risk

Picture

Presented by David Byers

Response Manager

Dept. of Ecology


Changing energy picture in washington state
Changing Energy Picture in Washington State

  • Crude Oil Types (Bitumen vs. Bakken)

  • Oil Behavior, Fate and Effects

  • Oil Transportation

    • Rail

    • Pipeline

    • Vessel (tank ship, barge)

  • Responder and Public Safety Concerns

  • Changing Risk Picture


Westshore Terminal, BC

BP – 225,000 bpd

Kinder Morgan Trans Mountain

170,000 bpd

Phillips 66 – 96,000 bpd

Tesoro – 120,000 bpd

Oil Tankers – 7.2 B gpy

Shell – 145,000 bpd

CP Yellowstone Pipeline

83 M gpy

US Oil – 38,000 bpd

Olympic Pipeline

300,000 bpd

Chevron (Tesoro) Pipeline

375 M gpy


BP

Kinder Morgan Trans Mountain

Expansion

Gateway Pacific

Phillips 66

Tesoro

Oil Tankers

Shell

US Oil

Imperium

Westway

US Development

Millennium

Tesoro +

Cascade Grain

Paramount



Typical ore range
Typical Ore Range

  • 55-80% sand

  • 5-34% fines

  • 4-18% bitumen

  • 2-15% water

  • 73% sand

  • 10% fines

  • 12% bitumen

  • 5% water


Osp vocabulary
OSP Vocabulary

Bitumen – Extra Heavy Crude Oil, Biodegraded in-situ

Dilbit – Bitumen diluted for transportation (30:70)

Diluent – Low viscosity ‘product’ mixed with bitumen

CRW – Condensate Redwater; crude naptha

Syncrude – Synthetic “bottomless” crude cracked on-site

Synbit – Syncrude + Bitumen (50:50)

Dilsynbit – Diluent + Syncrude + Bitumen


Bakken crude oil development
Bakken Crude Oil Development


Bakken crude
Bakken Crude

  • Light sweet crude

  • No pipeline infrastructure

  • Unit trains

  • ‘Wet’ Corridors in WA

  • Up to 3% benzene

  • Behavior is similar to ANS crude, just lighter


Bitumen bakken behavior fate
Bitumen/Bakken Behavior/Fate

  • Lack of testing & data

  • Bitumen Density: 0.94 to 1.03

  • Evaporation:

    • < 5% in 9 days for Bitumen

    • 75% in 2 days for Bakken

    • 30% in 2 days for ANS

  • Weathering & Sinking (primary factors)

    • Emulsifying

    • Sediment Interaction

    • Photo oxidation (grape skin)

  • Biodegradation: slower with higher PAH concentrations


Spill case study
Spill Case Study

Burrard Inlet, Burnaby, BC– July 25, 2007

- Pipeline rupture due to utility contractor excavation

- 58,000 gallons dilsynbit, 25,000 gallons to water

- Boomed within 40 minutes

- Calm winds,

warm weather,

clear water


Rail transport
Rail Transport

BNSF is Primary Carrier in Washington

  • Currently shipping lots of Bakken

  • Expanding operations – rail car production limited

  • 300% Increase in crude deliveries last year

  • 680 bbls gallons/rail car

  • DOT 111 improvements


  • Operating 1953

  • Currently pushing 300,000 bpd

  • Expanding to 890,000 bpd

    • Twinning

    • Pump upgrades

    • Increased Storage capacity

    • Additional tanker berths


Washington upgrades
Washington Upgrades

  • Currently 170,000 bpd

  • Increase to 225,000 bpd

  • 20” and 16” lines

  • 1 mile of 16” line increase to 20”

  • Additional pump at Laurel


Spill considerations
Spill Considerations

  • Response Safety

    • Fire/Explosion

    • Benzene

    • Lack of specific information on diluent

  • Changing Spill Risk – different exposures

  • Response Detection and Cleanup Effectiveness

    • Submerged Oil

  • Inadequate spill behavior/fate/effects/toxicity/ dispersant efficacy information


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