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Minimum Snap Trajectory Generation for Control of Quadrotors (Best Paper ICRA 2011) Daniel Mellinger and Vijay Kumar GRASP Lab, UPenn. 1. (Very ) B rief Outline. Goal is to develop planning and control techniques for control of an autonomous quadrotor Experimental setup

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Minimum Snap Trajectory Generation for Control of Quadrotors

(Best Paper ICRA 2011)

Daniel Mellinger and Vijay Kumar

GRASP Lab, UPenn

1


Very b rief outline
(Very) Brief Outline

Goal is to develop planning and control techniques for control of an autonomous quadrotor

Experimental setup

Ascending Technologies Hummingbird

200g payload

20min

Vicon Motion Capture system

IR and visual cameras to capture position and orientation from markers on the target

200Hz

2


L


Differential flatness
Differential Flatness

  • A complicated thing I don’t really understand

    1 - Select a set of ‘flat’ outputs

    2 - The inputs must be able to be written as a function of the flat outputs and a (limited number of) their derivatives

    3 - ?

    4 – Planning and control (profit)


  • For the quadrotor, the full state is:

    (position, velocity, orientation, angular velocity)

  • Flat output selection

  • Then allowable trajectories are smooth functions of position and yaw angle

  • Then, need to find equations expressing the inputs (engine speeds) as a function of the flat outputs


Orientation as a function of flat outputs
Orientation as a function of flat outputs

  • Body z-axis unit vector is the acceleration direction

  • Further rotation by the yaw angle gives the x unit vector (in the intermediate yaw frame)


Angular velocity as a function of flat outputs
Angular velocity as a function of flat outputs

  • Body acceleration

  • Differentiate (u1is the total force from the motors)

  • Isolate angular rate components


Angular accelerations as a function of flat outputs
Angular accelerations as a function of flat outputs

  • Angular acceleration

  • x and y components (differantiate and dot-product with the x and y body vectors)

  • z-component


Step 3
Step 3 - ?

  • Then, force is a function of the flat outputs

  • Angular velocity and acceleration are functions of the flat outputs

  • Then,

    u = f(x, y, z, ψ)


Control
Control

  • From a defined trajectory

  • Control law to find desired force to travel to target trajectory

  • Now need desired rotation matrix



Trajectories
Trajectories axis unit vectors

  • Keyframes (defined trajectory points) with ‘safety corridors’ between each keyframe

  • Link keyframes with polynomial paths in the flat output space

  • Minimise curvature for smooth achievable paths


  • i.e. axis unit vectors

  • “The cost function [...] is similar to that used by Flash and Hogan who showed human reaching trajectories appear to minimize the integral of the square of the norm of the jerk (the derivative of acceleration, kr = 3). In our system, since the inputs u2 and u3 appear as functions of the fourth derivatives of the positions, we generate trajectories that minimize the integral of the square of the norm of the snap (the second derivative of acceleration, kr = 4).



Notes on the paper
Notes on the paper separately

  • At the page limit

    • efficient use of space

    • reference previous work and theories

  • Nice graphical representations of video data


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