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Supplemental Study for Year 3. Reason for Supplemental Study. Accelerate new lines of research. Tasks Assoc. with Supplemental Funds. Depletion of Cr, Cu, and As during the service life of CCA-treated wood (task 1) Quantity of CCA-treated wood used by major industries (task 2)

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reason for supplemental study
Reason for Supplemental Study
  • Accelerate new lines of research.
tasks assoc with supplemental funds
Tasks Assoc. with Supplemental Funds
  • Depletion of Cr, Cu, and As during the service life of CCA-treated wood(task 1)
  • Quantity of CCA-treated wood used by major industries (task 2)
  • TCLP and SPLP tests for unburned CCA-treated wood (task 5)
  • Laboratory Methods for Cr and As speciation (task 3)
  • Identify laboratory methods for organics analysis assoc. with alternative chemicals (task 4)

In-Service Issues


Literature Review

  • Year 1 Study -- Collected samples of processed wood from C&D debris recycling facilities in Florida. Found that approximately 6% of wood stream was CCA-treated.
  • Year 2 Study -- Characterized ash from the combustion of CCA-treated wood and wood mixtures. Found that the presence of 5% CCA-treated wood caused ash to fail TCLP and be characterized as a hazardous waste.
  • No leaching studies were conducted on unburned CCA-treated wood as part of year 1 and 2 studies.
when is leaching a concern
When is Leaching a Concern?
  • Leaching during In-Service Use
  • Leaching during Storage
  • Leaching upon Reuse of Mulch
  • Leaching during Disposal
leaching tests on unburned cca treated wood in year 3 supplemental project
Leaching Tests on Unburned CCA-Treated Wood in Year 3 Supplemental Project
  • Leaching of new CCA-treated wood using standardized regulatory leaching tests
  • Leaching of wood mulch produced by C&D debris recycling operations
types of leaching tests
Types of Leaching Tests
  • Batch Tests
    • Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
    • Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP)
  • Column Tests
  • Field Tests
testing results to be discussed
Testing Results to be Discussed
  • Ten samples of CCA-treated wood purchased from home supply stores
    • TCLP
    • SPLP
    • Particle Size
  • One sample
reminder for arsenic
Reminder for Arsenic
  • Toxicity Characteristic
    • Arsenic: 5 mg/l
    • Chromium: 5 mg/l
  • Groundwater Cleanup Target Level
    • Arsenic: 0.05 mg/l
    • Chromium: 0.10 mg/l
    • Copper: 1 mg/l
how are tclp and splp tests applied
How are TCLP and SPLP Tests Applied?
  • TCLP: To determine if solid waste is hazardous by toxicity characteristic. Note: Discarded arsenical-treated wood is exempt under RCRA.
  • TCLP: To determine is hazardous waste can be land disposed.
  • SPLP: To determine if land-applied waste or contaminated soil presents a risk to groundwater from chemical leaching.
tclp and splp
  • Batch tests.
  • TCLP: Municipal Landfill
  • SPLP: Acidic Rain
  • 100 g of waste per 2 L of leaching solution.
  • Extracted for 18 hours.
  • Leachate if filtered and analyzed.

TCLP ArsenicImpact of Particle Size


5 Blocks

1 Block


implications of leaching tests
Implications of Leaching Tests
  • Without the exclusion, CCA-treated wood would often be a characteristic hazardous waste.
  • If SPLP results are compared to GWCTLs, should not be disposed in an unlined landfill (based on current policy for other wastes).
leaching from land applied mulch
Leaching from Land Applied Mulch
  • The SPLP is the test most commonly used to assess leaching from a land applied waste.

C&D Wood MulchAs in SPLP Leachates

Total Samples: 58

Mean: 153 ug/l

Range: 21 to 658 ug/l

51 Samples > 50 ug/l









Arsenic Concentration (ug/l)

implications for mulch
Implications for Mulch
  • When considering SPLP leaching, CCA-treated wood must be present at levels of less than 1% in wood mulch to meet current groundwater standards.
  • Most C&D wood samples are already greater than 1%.
u s southern pine markets
U.S. Southern Pine Markets

(From SFPA)






double check values for florida
Double-Check Values for Florida
  • Focus
    • Transportation Sector
    • Utility Poles
    • Docks
transportation sector
Transportation Sector
  • Initial contact with FDOT Districts
utility poles
Utility Poles
  • Compiled volume of treated wood for 1998 from questionnaires sent out last year
  • Scaled data by population served
  • Scaled 1998 data against US historical pole production statistics

Utility Poles

  • Preliminary Results
    • 1600 tons of As (Cumulative)
    • 6% of all As associated with CCA-treated wood that is currently in service
residential docks
Residential Docks
  • Evaluated data for 3 counties (Alachua, Dade and Leon)
  • For each county, we
    • Obtained copies of dock building permits
    • Contacted the Property Appraisers Office
    • Reviewed aerial photographs
    • Contacted dock manufacturers
results from permits
Results from permits
  • Alachua
    • 41 permits reviewed
    • Approx 486 (freshwater) docks permitted since recording in 1994
  • Dade
    • 100 permits reviewed
    • Approx 6000 (marine) docks permitted since recording in 1980
  • Leon
    • 71 permits reviewed
    • Approx 450 (freshwater) docks permitted since recording began in 1993
material distribution in alachua county docks
Material distribution in Alachua County Docks

Predominantly Freshwater Docks

material distribution in dade county docks
Material distribution in Dade County Docks

Predominantly Salt water Docks

material distribution in leon county docks
Material distribution in Leon County Docks

Predominantly Freshwater Docks

preliminary results
Preliminary Results
  • Obtained Typical Retention Levels
  • Average Dock Size (Surface Area)
  • Typical Design
  • Scale Data to County Population
  • Numbers Computed Appear Low
possible reasons for small no
Possible Reasons for Small No.
  • Not all docks have been permitted
  • Other marine applications (Piers, Bulkheads, etc….
  • SFPA estimates that docks represent 32% of marine applications
task 1 depletion during service life1
Task 1: Depletion During Service Life


  • Literature Review
  • Sample Soils Below CCA-Treated Decks
  • Analyze Soil Samples
task 1 depletion during service life2
Task 1: Depletion During Service Life

Sample soils below CCA-Treated Decks

  • A total of nine decks sampled
    • 3 in Gainesville
    • 3 in Miami
    • 2 in Tallahassee (1 other deck sampled, not CCA-treated)
  • Samples collected in a grid-like fashion below each deck
  • Initially, at least 2 background samples were collected near each deck. Later, a total of 8 were collected
  • A core sample/sawdust collected
gainesville decks

Paynes Prairie

Gainesville Decks

Foot Bridge at NW 34th St

Bivens Arm Park

miami decks
Miami Decks

A.D. Barnes Park

Oleta River Park

Tropical Park

tallahassee decks
Tallahassee Decks

Maclay Gardens

Lake Talquin

Tom Brown Park

stains wood bore sawdust
Stains, wood bore, &Sawdust

XRF Analysis by

Robbins Manufacturing

background information
Background Information
  • The Florida Department of Environmental Protection has developed a set of risk-based concentration levels of chemicals in soil:

The Soil Cleanup Target Levels (SCTL)

  • Direct Exposure
    • Residential SCTL for As is 0.8 mg/kg.
    • Industrial SCTL for As is 3.7 mg/kg.
background information1
Background Information
  • The naturally occurring As concentration in Florida soils has been measured (Ma et al. 1999).
  • Geometric Mean = 0.42 mg/kg
    • 73% of soil samples were less than 0.8 mg/kg
    • >90% of soil samples were less than 3.7 mg/kg
  • The mean As concentration under 8 of the 9 decks exceeded the industrial Florida SCTL of 3.7 mg/kg.
  • Sixty one of 73 of the individual soil samples exceeded the industrial Florida SCTL.
additional sample collection
Additional Sample Collection
  • Additional control samples were collected and analyzed to assist with statistical comparison
copper and chromium analysis
Copper and Chromium Analysis
  • Analysis of Copper and Chromium has been completed
soil cores
Soil Cores
  • One soil core was collected from underneath each deck

Miami Site OPSoil Core Data

  • Arsenic
  • Chromium
  • Copper