高等教育投資 ： 邏輯 與 比較. 曾孝明 清華大學電機系（ [email protected] ） 參考文獻 曾孝明，台灣教育的宏觀與微觀，御書房（ 2004 ）。 曾孝明，台灣產業的對焦與失焦，御書房（ 2004 ） 。 曾孝明，台灣的知識經濟 ── 困境與迷思，群學（ 2001 ）。. 2007 年 11 月 3 日. 大 綱. 傳統大學成長的動力。 卓越是一種傳統，更是一種文化（以英國的投資為例）。 美國的高等教育與運作方式是全球最例外的一個。 自主又完備的研發基礎架構 → 卓越。 卓越的指標、動力、國際化和管理到底是什麼？
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曾孝明，台灣的知識經濟 ── 困境與迷思，群學（2001）。
Photo: David Clugston
THE DOCTOR IS IN: Developed at the University of Washington’s BioRobotics Lab, a remote-controlled two-armed surgical robot “operates” on a plastic and rubber anatomical model of a human torso.
Doc at a Distance
By Jacob Rosen and Blake Hannaford
IEEE SPECTRUM Oct. 2006
Prized moment. Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, John Steinbeck (Nobel laureate in literature), James Watson, Max Perutz, and John Kendrew (left to right) all left Stockholm with Nobel Prizes in hand. CREDIT: AP PHOTO
Elizabeth Pennisi, Science, Vol 300, pp. 278-282 , 11 April 2003
Nobel lineage. Many scientists at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (orange) and its predecessor (green), have received honors at Stockholm and, over the decades, attracted new talent destined to win prizes. (Dates reflect years spent at the lab.)
Elizabeth Pennisi, A Hothouse of Molecular Biology, Science, Vol 300, pp. 278-282 , 11 April 2003.
Elizabeth Pennisi, Science, Vol 300, pp. 278-282 , 11 April 2003.
Astrophysics and Space Research Group, Univ. of Birmingham, U.K. was founded in 1946 under the leadership of Professor J. Sayers.
Optoelectronics Research Center, Univ. of Southampton, U.K.
Centre for Photonics and Photonic Materials, Department of Physics at Bath University, U.K., was found and led by Prof. Russell in1996.
P. St. J. Russell et. al., Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air, Science 3 September 1999
The Centre for Photonics and Photonic Materials is formed by around 30 academics (including 8 academic staff), postdocs and PhD students from the Department of Physics at Bath, who work together in an interactive and collaborative environment doing cutting-edge research in Photonics. Much of our work is based in our state-of-the-art fabrication facilities and our extensive optical laboratories. (www.bath.ac.uk )
Crystal Fibre A/S is today the biggest commercial supplier of photonic crystal fibers and offer a diversity of speciality fibers within nonlinear fibers, large mode area fibers as well as high NA and UV optimized fibers - all from stock.
Source: The Higher Education Funding Council for England; HEFCE(2005)
CREDIT: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
Karen Schmidt, Science, Vol 285, No. 5433, pp. 1517-1519 , 3 Sep. 1999.
• 1923 - Physics, Robert A. Millikan • 1936 - Physics, Carl D. Anderson • 1961 - Physics, Rudolf Mössbauer • 1965 - Physics, Richard P. Feynman • 1969 - Physics, Murray Gell-Mann • 1983 - Physics, William A. Fowler • 2004 - Physics, H. David Politzer • 1954 - Chemistry, Linus Pauling (1962 - Peace)
• 1992 - Chemistry, Rudolph A. Marcus • 1999 - Chemistry, Ahmed Zewail • 2005 - Chemistry, Robert H. Grubbs • 1933 - Physiology or Medicine, Thomas H. Morgan • 1958 - Physiology or Medicine, George Beadle • 1969 - Physiology or Medicine, Max Delbrück • 1981 - Physiology or Medicine, Roger W. Sperry • 1995 - Physiology or Medicine, Edward B. Lewis
• 1934 - Physiology or Medicine, George H. Whipple • 1946 - Chemistry, John H. Northrop • 1946 - Chemistry, Wendell M. Stanley • 1912 - Physiology or Medicine, Alexis Carrel • 1930 - Physiology or Medicine, Karl Landsteiner • 1944 - Physiology or Medicine, Herbert S. Gasser • 1958 - Physiology or Medicine, Edward Tatum
• 1972 - Chemistry, Stanford Moore • 1972 - Chemistry, William H. Stein • 1984 - Chemistry, Bruce Merrifield • 2003 - Chemistry, Roderick MacKinnon • 1966 - Physiology or Medicine, Peyton Rous • 1967 - Physiology or Medicine, Haldan K. Hartline • 1972 - Physiology or Medicine, Gerald M. Edelman • 1974 - Physiology or Medicine, Christian de Duve • 1999 - Physiology or Medicine, Günter Blobel • 2000 - Physiology or Medicine, Paul Greengard
Since the institution's founding in 1901, 23 Nobel Prize winners have been associated with the university.
Nobel Prize in 2001
"The best way to learn science
is by doing science."
• 1953 - Physiology or Medicine, Fritz Lipmann • 1954 - Physiology or Medicine, John F. Enders • 1980 - Physiology or Medicine, Baruj Benacerraf • 1981 - Physiology or Medicine, David H. Hubel • 1981 - Physiology or Medicine, Torsten N. Wiesel • 1946 - Physics, Percy W. Bridgman • 1952 - Physics, E. M. Purcell • 1965 - Physics, Julian Schwinger • 1977 - Physics, John H. van Vleck • 1979 - Physics, Steven Weinberg • 1981 - Physics, Nicolaas Bloembergen • 1989 - Physics, Norman F. Ramsey • 2005 - Physics, Roy J. Glauber • 1914 - Chemistry, Theodore W. Richards• 1965 - Chemistry, Robert B. Woodward
• 1976 - Chemistry, William Lipscomb • 1986 - Chemistry, Dudley R. Herschbach • 1990 - Chemistry, Elias James Corey • 1934 - Physiology or Medicine, George R. Minot • 1934 - Physiology or Medicine, William P. Murphy• 1961 - Physiology or Medicine, Georg von Békésy • 1962 - Physiology or Medicine, James Watson • 1964 - Physiology or Medicine, Konrad Bloch • 1967 - Physiology or Medicine, George Wald • 1971 - Economic Sciences, Simon Kuznets • 1972 - Economic Sciences, Kenneth J. Arrow • 1973 - Economic Sciences, Wassily Leontief • 1997 - Economic Sciences, Robert C. Merton • 1980 - Chemistry, Walter Gilbert • 1979 - Physics, Sheldon Glashow
MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
• 1962 - Chemistry, Max F. Perutz • 1962 - Chemistry, John C. Kendrew • 1980 - Chemistry, Frederick Sanger • 1982 - Chemistry, Aaron Klug • 1997 - Chemistry, John E. Walker• 1962 - Physiology or Medicine, Francis Crick • 1984 - Physiology or Medicine, César Milstein
• 1906 - Physics, J.J. Thomson • 1927 - Physics, C.T.R. Wilson • 1933 - Physics, Paul A.M. Dirac • 1973 - Physics, Brian D. Josephson • 1974 - Physics, Martin Ryle • 1974 - Physics, Antony Hewish • 1977 - Physics, Sir Nevill F. Mott • 1922 - Chemistry, Francis W. Aston • 1957 - Chemistry, Lord Todd • 1958 - Chemistry, Frederick Sanger • 1929 - Physiology or Medicine, Sir Frederick Hopkins • 1932 - Physiology or Medicine, Edgar Adrian • 1963 - Physiology or Medicine, Alan L. Hodgkin • 1977 - Economic Sciences, James E. Meade • 1984 - Economic Sciences, Richard Stone • 1996 - Economic Sciences, James A. Mirrlees
Nobel Laureates (University of California at Santa Barbara)
• 2000 - Physics, Herbert Kroemer • 1998 - Chemistry, Walter Kohn • 2000 - Chemistry, Alan Heeger • 2004 - Economic Sciences, Finn E. Kydland
Advanced Light SourceLawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CaliforniaCompleted: 1993 1997 Operating Cost: $18 millionTechnical Specs: High-brightness soft x-ray and ultraviolet radiationNumber of users: 300
Andrew Lawler, Science, Vol 277, Issue 5327, 756-757 , 8 August 1997
France's élite grandes écoles should operate less in isolation from the rest of higher education and be integrated more into the university system through the creation of joint courses and degrees and the sharing of facilities such as libraries and laboratories.
Graduates of the écoles have served France well in the past within the state's massive technological programmes in such fields as nuclear energy, aerospace and high-speed trains. But economic needs have now shifted towards a higher education system that fosters contacts between scientists, entrepreneurs and small companies.
The report argues that the selection process has become too élitist, benefiting almost exclusively the children of top civil servants or wealthy industrialists, who have enjoyed a privileged education. This social inequality has widened in recent decades, according to the report, with most entrants to the grandes écoles now coming from just a handful of top schools.
Declan Butler,Nature393, 102 (14 May 1998)
(Left) Anne Chopinet, entered the École first ranked in 1972. (Right) Every year, the Polytechnicients take part in the Bastille Day March on the Champs-Elysées.
The Ecole Polytechnique, founded in 1794,is under the authority of the French Department of Defense. it is headed by a general, and employs military personnel in executive, administrative and sport training positions.
a small size: a 'Grande École' is usually of the size of a university department, with at most of 300 to 500 graduates per year.
an approach based on fundamentals, with a strong emphasis on mathematics and physics, and a high level of abstraction.
It happened a decade ago at the 1993 IEEE International Conference on Communications in Geneva, Switzerland. Two French electrical engineers, Claude Berrou and Alain Glavieux, made a flabbergasting claim: they had invented a digital coding scheme that could provide virtually error-free communications at data rates and transmitting-power efficiencies well beyond what most experts thought possible. Few veteran communications engineers believed the results. The Frenchmen, both professors in the electronics department at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications de Bretagne in Brest, France, were then unknown in the information-theory community. The claims were so preposterous that many experts didn't even bother to read the paper.
Berrou and Glavieux were right, and their error-correction coding scheme, which has since been dubbed turbo codes, has revolutionized error-correction coding. Chances are fairly good that the next cellphone you buy will have them built in.
With possibilities like these, turbo codes have jumped to the forefront of communications research, with hundreds of groups working on them in companies and universities all over the world. The list includes telecommunications giants like France Télécom and NTT DoCoMo; high-tech heavyweights like Sony, NEC, Lucent, Samsung, Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, and Qualcomm; hardware and chip manufacturers like Broadcom, Conexant, Comtech AHA, and STMicroelectronics; and start-ups like Turboconcept and iCoding.
Erico Guizzo, IEEE March 2004
Science 23 March 2007
1948 Tokai Electronics Laboratory (original company of Hamamatsu Photonics) established.
1966 New York Business Office opened.
1985 Headquarters Business Office opened and Tsukuba Research Laboratory established.
1990 Central Research Laboratory and Sendai Sales Office opened
2002 Masatoshi Koshiba（小柴昌俊）, professor emeritus of University of Tokyo, was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. Prof. Koshiba was recognized for having established the new field of "Neutrino Astronomy" as a result of research conducted at the Kamiokande, which was equipped with photomultiplier tubes made by HAMAMATSU.
2003 As a first step of new industry to achieve "true health" for mankind, the building of a clinical facility for the Hamamatsu Medical Imaging Center run by the Hamamatsu Medical Photonics Foundation was completed to facilitate the early detection of cancer and dementia.
Photonics Industries" where new industries
based on light started.
Artist's conception of the IceCube array of photodetectors now under construction at the South Pole. When complete, IceCube will detect neutrinos originating from collisions of cosmic rays with nitrogen and oxygen in the Northern Hemisphere; neutrinos reaching the detector must first pass through the entire planet.
Dennis Normile,Science, 317, 1493 14 September 2007
(Left) In 1875, Genzo Shimadzu (1839-1894) starts
a business manufacturing educational physics and chemistry instruments at Kiyamachi-Nijo in Kyoto.
(Right) In 1909, the first medical X-ray in Japan.
Stockholm in 2002
Reactor reborn. Japan will remove the core of its JT-60 reactor and rebuild it with superconducting magnets to aid the ITER project.
CREDIT: JAPAN ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY
FUSION: Scientists Reap ITER's First Dividends by Daniel Clery
Japanese researchers were disappointed when they lost a bid last year to host the $12 billion International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. In an agreement due to receive provisional approval this week, some $870 million will be spent on fusion-related facilities in Japan, with equal contributions from Japan and the European Union.Science 24 November 2006
Daniel Clery, FUSION REACTOR: ITER's $12 Billion Gamble,
Science 13 October 2006: Vol. 314. no. 5797, pp. 238 – 242.
D. A. KING, The scientific impact of nations, Nature430, 311 - 316 (15 July 2004)
International Comparison of Public Expenditure on Education
Source:UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1999 Edition (Apr. 25 , 2000)(http://web-japan.org/stat/stats/16EDU11.html)
Source: L. Goedegebuure and F. van Vught, edited, Comparative Policy Studies in Higher Education, Center for Higher Education Policy Studies （CHEPS）, Enschede and Uitgeverij （1994）.
L. Goedegebuure, et. al., edited, Higher Education Policy: An International comparative Perspective, Pergamon Press, Oxford（1993）.
R.T. Rhodes, The Creation of the Future: The Role of the American University, pp. 63, Cornell University Press, Ithaca（2001）
During the ensuing discussions, the idea emerged slowly to undertake our own design. And suddenly I had become concrete. "Crazy" was my first reaction, and "impossible". The sheer amount of work
appeared as overwhelming. After all, we both had to carry our share of teaching duties back home. But the thought was implanted and continued to occupy our minds.
ACM, A. M.
Turing Award (1984)
Sometime thereafter, events back home suggested that I should take over the important course about System Software. As it was the unwritten rule that it should primarily deal with operating system principles, I hesitated. My scruples were easily justified: After all I had never designed such a system nor a part of it. And how can one teach an engineering subject without first-hand experience!
Project Oberon: The Design of an Operating System and Compiler (www.oberon.ethz.ch/books.html )
Prof. Niklaus Wirth
Oberon is simultaneously the name of a programming language and of a modern operating system. The Oberon project [WG92] was started at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ) in 1985 by Niklaus Wirth and Jürg Gutknecht. It was originally targeted towards in-house built hardware (Ceres workstation, based on the National Semiconductors 32000 processor family). Later, the decision was made to port the system to popular computer hardware, where it would run natively or on top of the operating system of the host. Today, Oberon is available for many computer platforms.
In 1991, Jürg Gutknecht and his group continued the development towards the ETH Oberon System. The goal was to exploit the inherent potential and features of Oberon to a much larger degree, upgrade the system by a concept of composable and persistent objects, complement the textual user interface by a graphical companion and provide support for the ubiquitous network. In 1995, the first official Oberon System 3 release was finished. Since then, the system has been constantly improved and extended. In 1997, the Release 2.2 including a large palette of applications was published together with a comprehensive hypertext-based documentation. In March 2000, a new release was ready and the system was renamed "ETH Oberon System".
Germany versions excluded (www.oberon.ethz.ch).
Following damaging cuts in public spending last year, a new research policy in the Netherlands promises more freedom to researchers to set priorities. But national interests should not be forgotten.
Universities will submit strategic plans to the NWO every four years, rather than two-yearly reports of progress to the ministry. The NWO, in turn, will craft a national research plan based on universities' submissions. In order to foster awareness of potential economic and social relevance, foresight studies developed by the independent Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy will be available for universities to take into account as they see fit.
t would be wrong to conclude that the Netherlands has drawn back from the idea that science should help develop the country economically and socially. Rather, the policy shift is an attempt to set a new balance of ministerial responsibility on the one hand and, on the other, to delegate authority to universities and the NWO, trusting them not only to pursue interesting questions but also to keep the national interest in mind.
Nature400, 387 (29 July 1999)
The Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS) specializes in advanced quantitative analysis of science and technology performance and the cognitive and organizational structure of science and technology. Research in short- and long-term programmes is carried out for governments, European Union (EU), national and international research organizations, universities and companies. CWTS is an interdisciplinary research institute housed within the Faculty of Social Sciences. The CWTS participates in the Netherlands Graduate School on Science, Technology, and Modern Culture.
The astronomical institute of the Univ. of Amsterdam has an outstanding reputation in the field of high energy astrophysics, but as well has built up a substantial low energy research group, which is currently one of the leading groups using ISO data. Observations are based both on terrestrial telescopes of the ESO (European Southern Observatory) and La Palma and various satellite observations with satellites like the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the X-ray satellites Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Beppo SAX, Chandra and XMM and the Hubble Space Telescope.
The Institute has the following research groups and projects
Paul Groot received his degree from the University of Amsterdam, under the supervision of the renowned astronomer Jan van Paradijs. He wrote a Master's thesis on a novel way to measure stellar rotation. In 1995 he started his PhD project on the astrophysics of Cataclysmic Variables: close binaries in which a white dwarf accretes material from a companion via a thin, hot, accretion disc. In February 1997 it was Paul Groot who managed to find the optical counterpart of a Gamma-ray burst, a breakthrough that contributed significantly to (a start of) a solution of the mysteries of Gamma-ray bursts.
After obtaining his PhD (cum laude) in 1999, he moved to the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) of Harvard University on a CfA fellowship. In 2002 he returned to the Netherlands as an assistant professor at the Radboud University Nijmegen, where he and Jan Kuijpers successfully started a new astrophysics group.
Eindhoven University of Technology：Provides 10 academic Bachelor programmes, 19 Master programmes, 10 postgraduate design programmes, 3 first degree teacher-training programmes in mathematics, physics and chemistry, as well as various other postgraduate courses and programmes.
Through more intensive cooperation, the three universities of technology in the Netherlands enlarge their impact on the field of the Dutch knowledge based economy. In view of this intention, Delft University of Technology, the University of Twente and Eindhoven University of Technology have started a process which should lead to more harmony and co-operation in 2003.
3TU.Centre for Multiscale Phenomena 3TU.Centre for Bio-Nano Applications 3TU.Centre for Intelligent Mechatronic Systems 3TU.Centre for Dependable ICT Systems 3TU.Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies 3TU.Centre for Ethics and Technology (2 Mar. 2006)
chairs Flierman (UT), Lundqvist (TU/e) and Van Luijk (TUD) take a look at the test version of the website before it goes ‘live’.
Cabinet approves 50 million Euro for three technology universities
On 24 February 2006 the Dutch cabinet approved a proposal from the three universities of technology in the Netherlands to federate. And 50 million Euro is being made available in five annual installments to combine their research at five centres of excellence. These will help pave the way for the establishment of the Federation of Dutch Universities of Technology (3TU Federation) itself, which is scheduled for 1 April 2007.
“The integration of electrical engineering, physics, and chemistry in one location within a single research institute is virtually unheard of and, we think, unique in the world”, say David N. Reinhoudt, MESA+ scientific director (Twente Univ. of Technology, the Netherlands). Around 400 people work at MESA+. They include about 100 scientists on the permanent staff, 100 technicians, and 200 Ph.D. students and postdoctoral researchers.
Source: Chemical Engineering News Vol. 79, No. 6, 2001.
A brief introductionThe research area of the Circuits and Systems group covers the theory and applications of circuits and systems, signal processing, and VLSI circuit and system design methodology.
Our system applications are taken from several areas that require new mathematical insights, eg. wireless communications, distributed networks, radio astronomy and biomedical applications, and we limit ourselves to the central signal processing aspects of these. The objective is to develop efficient signal processing algorithms and to compile these onto embedded systems and the underlying physical circuits. The new insights are incorporated in design tools and actual designs. Here we benefit from the interaction with many other research groups in the EEMCS faculty (Micro-electronics, Communications, Electromagnetics, Multimedia and Computer Science): joint projects with these groups provide relevant applications and a bigger scheme in which our research fits. Signal processing and VLSI design ("algorithms" and "architectures") is really the interface between "hard" technology and "soft" user applications.