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高等教育投資 : 邏輯 與 比較. 曾孝明 清華大學電機系( [email protected] ) 參考文獻 曾孝明,台灣教育的宏觀與微觀,御書房( 2004 )。 曾孝明,台灣產業的對焦與失焦,御書房( 2004 ) 。 曾孝明,台灣的知識經濟 ── 困境與迷思,群學( 2001 )。. 2007 年 11 月 3 日. 大   綱. 傳統大學成長的動力。 卓越是一種傳統,更是一種文化(以英國的投資為例)。 美國的高等教育與運作方式是全球最例外的一個。 自主又完備的研發基礎架構 → 卓越。 卓越的指標、動力、國際化和管理到底是什麼?

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高等教育投資 : 邏輯 與 比較

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高等教育投資:邏輯與比較

曾孝明

清華大學電機系([email protected]

參考文獻

曾孝明,台灣教育的宏觀與微觀,御書房(2004)。

曾孝明,台灣產業的對焦與失焦,御書房(2004)。

曾孝明,台灣的知識經濟 ── 困境與迷思,群學(2001)。

2007年11月3日


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大   綱

  • 傳統大學成長的動力。

  • 卓越是一種傳統,更是一種文化(以英國的投資為例)。

  • 美國的高等教育與運作方式是全球最例外的一個。

  • 自主又完備的研發基礎架構 → 卓越。

  • 卓越的指標、動力、國際化和管理到底是什麼?

  • 最值得了解與借鏡的三個國家 ── 瑞士、荷蘭、以色列。

  • 產學關係與互動。

  • 大學是研發基礎架構的搖籃。

  • 漢字文化背景的地區的問題。

  • 台灣的高等教育投資與管理、整體教育出了什麼大問題?

  • 結論:我們太迫切需要公共政策研究。


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二○○七年一月一日

教改失當

工商時報


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專業知識的成長與需求

Photo: David Clugston

THE DOCTOR IS IN: Developed at the University of Washington’s BioRobotics Lab, a remote-controlled two-armed surgical robot “operates” on a plastic and rubber anatomical model of a human torso.

Doc at a Distance

By Jacob Rosen and Blake Hannaford

IEEE SPECTRUM Oct. 2006


A hothouse of molecular biology

A Hothouse of Molecular Biology

Prized moment. Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, John Steinbeck (Nobel laureate in literature), James Watson, Max Perutz, and John Kendrew (left to right) all left Stockholm with Nobel Prizes in hand. CREDIT: AP PHOTO

Elizabeth Pennisi, Science, Vol 300, pp. 278-282 , 11 April 2003


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Nobel lineage. Many scientists at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (orange) and its predecessor (green), have received honors at Stockholm and, over the decades, attracted new talent destined to win prizes. (Dates reflect years spent at the lab.)

Elizabeth Pennisi, A Hothouse of Molecular Biology, Science, Vol 300, pp. 278-282 , 11 April 2003.


50th anniversary of discovery of dna

50th anniversary of discovery of DNA

  • LMB had it origins in the illustrious 19th century Cavendish Laboratory. Cavendish scientists excelled in physics. J. J. Thomson discovered the electron there, and Ernest Rutherford smashed the atom.

  • What started about 55 years ago as a pilot program in biophysics at the University of Cambridge eventually became the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB), now home to about 300 researchers and alma mater to hundreds of molecular biology's most influential.

  • Watson (a Nobel laureate) has called LMB "the most productive center for biology in the history of science."

  • Over the past 5 decades, they invented key technologies such as DNA sequencing. And they have helped to elucidate some of the most fundamental questions in biology: how genes carry the instructions for proteins, for instance, and how a single cell develops into an animal.

  • When LMB researchers needed a new instrument, Perutz (a Nobel laureate)made sure technicians and engineers were there to build it, a model he learned at the Cavendish.

  • "It's not whether you have published a lot of papers, it's more whether you have done some fundamental work," says LMB bioinformaticist Sarah Teichmann.

  • Sulston and Horvitz opened up a new field in cell biology, earning the 2002 Nobel.

    Elizabeth Pennisi, Science, Vol 300, pp. 278-282 , 11 April 2003.


Uniqueness in the u k

Uniqueness in the U.K.

Astrophysics and Space Research Group, Univ. of Birmingham, U.K. was founded in 1946 under the leadership of Professor J. Sayers.


The world s front runner

The world’s front runner

Optoelectronics Research Center, Univ. of Southampton, U.K.


Truly innovative research

Truly innovative research → $$

Centre for Photonics and Photonic Materials, Department of Physics at Bath University, U.K., was found and led by Prof. Russell in1996.

P. St. J. Russell et. al., Single-Mode Photonic Band Gap Guidance of Light in Air, Science 3 September 1999


A small but great group

A small but great “group”

The Centre for Photonics and Photonic Materials is formed by around 30 academics (including 8 academic staff), postdocs and PhD students from the Department of Physics at Bath, who work together in an interactive and collaborative environment doing cutting-edge research in Photonics. Much of our work is based in our state-of-the-art fabrication facilities and our extensive optical laboratories. (www.bath.ac.uk )


Money

MONEY

  • 1996 Prof. Anders Bjarklev, Jes Broeng and Stig E. Barkou began research at The Technical University of Denmark.

  • 1999 Crystal Fibre A/S is founded. Majority owned and funded by Danish industrial group NKT.

  • 2000First products sold, making Crystal Fibre the first commercial supplier of photonic crystal fibers.

  • 2001 New production facilities on-line

  • 2004 Crystal Fibre acquires the assets of BlazePhotonics(www.crystal-fibre.com)

Crystal Fibre A/S is today the biggest commercial supplier of photonic crystal fibers and offer a diversity of speciality fibers within nonlinear fibers, large mode area fibers as well as high NA and UV optimized fibers - all from stock.


Top 10 recipients of hefce research capital funds institution allocation

Top 10 recipients of HEFCE research capital funds Institution Allocation

  • Cambridge £68.8m

  • UCL £68.5m

  • Oxford £67.7m

  • Imperial £63.9m

  • Manchester £49.3m

  • King’s College £37.1m

  • Southampton £30.6m

  • Leeds £30.4m

  • Birmingham £29.2m

  • Sheffield £29.1m

Source: The Higher Education Funding Council for England; HEFCE(2005)


The u s a is always unique

The U.S.A. is always unique


The world s best

The world’s best


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CREDIT: NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION

Karen Schmidt, Science, Vol 285, No. 5433, pp. 1517-1519 , 3 Sep. 1999.


Nobel laureates california institute of technology

Nobel Laureates (California Institute of Technology)

• 1923 - Physics, Robert A. Millikan • 1936 - Physics, Carl D. Anderson • 1961 - Physics, Rudolf Mössbauer • 1965 - Physics, Richard P. Feynman • 1969 - Physics, Murray Gell-Mann • 1983 - Physics, William A. Fowler • 2004 - Physics, H. David Politzer • 1954 - Chemistry, Linus Pauling (1962 - Peace)

• 1992 - Chemistry, Rudolph A. Marcus • 1999 - Chemistry, Ahmed Zewail • 2005 - Chemistry, Robert H. Grubbs • 1933 - Physiology or Medicine, Thomas H. Morgan • 1958 - Physiology or Medicine, George Beadle • 1969 - Physiology or Medicine, Max Delbrück • 1981 - Physiology or Medicine, Roger W. Sperry • 1995 - Physiology or Medicine, Edward B. Lewis

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html


Nobel laureates rockefeller institute for medical research rockefeller univrsity

Nobel Laureates (Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research & Rockefeller Univrsity)

• 1934 - Physiology or Medicine, George H. Whipple • 1946 - Chemistry, John H. Northrop • 1946 - Chemistry, Wendell M. Stanley • 1912 - Physiology or Medicine, Alexis Carrel • 1930 - Physiology or Medicine, Karl Landsteiner • 1944 - Physiology or Medicine, Herbert S. Gasser • 1958 - Physiology or Medicine, Edward Tatum

• 1972 - Chemistry, Stanford Moore • 1972 - Chemistry, William H. Stein • 1984 - Chemistry, Bruce Merrifield • 2003 - Chemistry, Roderick MacKinnon • 1966 - Physiology or Medicine, Peyton Rous • 1967 - Physiology or Medicine, Haldan K. Hartline • 1972 - Physiology or Medicine, Gerald M. Edelman • 1974 - Physiology or Medicine, Christian de Duve • 1999 - Physiology or Medicine, Günter Blobel • 2000 - Physiology or Medicine, Paul Greengard

Since the institution's founding in 1901, 23 Nobel Prize winners have been associated with the university.

Paul Nurse

President

Nobel Prize in 2001

"The best way to learn science

is by doing science."

www.rockefeller.edu/graduate/

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html


Nobel laureates harvard university medical school

Nobel Laureates (HarvardUniversity & Medical School )

• 1953 - Physiology or Medicine, Fritz Lipmann • 1954 - Physiology or Medicine, John F. Enders • 1980 - Physiology or Medicine, Baruj Benacerraf • 1981 - Physiology or Medicine, David H. Hubel • 1981 - Physiology or Medicine, Torsten N. Wiesel • 1946 - Physics, Percy W. Bridgman • 1952 - Physics, E. M. Purcell • 1965 - Physics, Julian Schwinger • 1977 - Physics, John H. van Vleck • 1979 - Physics, Steven Weinberg • 1981 - Physics, Nicolaas Bloembergen • 1989 - Physics, Norman F. Ramsey • 2005 - Physics, Roy J. Glauber • 1914 - Chemistry, Theodore W. Richards• 1965 - Chemistry, Robert B. Woodward

• 1976 - Chemistry, William Lipscomb • 1986 - Chemistry, Dudley R. Herschbach • 1990 - Chemistry, Elias James Corey • 1934 - Physiology or Medicine, George R. Minot • 1934 - Physiology or Medicine, William P. Murphy• 1961 - Physiology or Medicine, Georg von Békésy • 1962 - Physiology or Medicine, James Watson • 1964 - Physiology or Medicine, Konrad Bloch • 1967 - Physiology or Medicine, George Wald • 1971 - Economic Sciences, Simon Kuznets • 1972 - Economic Sciences, Kenneth J. Arrow • 1973 - Economic Sciences, Wassily Leontief • 1997 - Economic Sciences, Robert C. Merton • 1980 - Chemistry, Walter Gilbert • 1979 - Physics, Sheldon Glashow

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html


Nobel laureates university of cambridge

Nobel Laureates (University of Cambridge)

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology

• 1962 - Chemistry, Max F. Perutz • 1962 - Chemistry, John C. Kendrew • 1980 - Chemistry, Frederick Sanger • 1982 - Chemistry, Aaron Klug • 1997 - Chemistry, John E. Walker• 1962 - Physiology or Medicine, Francis Crick • 1984 - Physiology or Medicine, César Milstein

• 1906 - Physics, J.J. Thomson • 1927 - Physics, C.T.R. Wilson • 1933 - Physics, Paul A.M. Dirac • 1973 - Physics, Brian D. Josephson • 1974 - Physics, Martin Ryle • 1974 - Physics, Antony Hewish • 1977 - Physics, Sir Nevill F. Mott • 1922 - Chemistry, Francis W. Aston • 1957 - Chemistry, Lord Todd • 1958 - Chemistry, Frederick Sanger • 1929 - Physiology or Medicine, Sir Frederick Hopkins • 1932 - Physiology or Medicine, Edgar Adrian • 1963 - Physiology or Medicine, Alan L. Hodgkin • 1977 - Economic Sciences, James E. Meade • 1984 - Economic Sciences, Richard Stone • 1996 - Economic Sciences, James A. Mirrlees

Nobel Laureates (University of California at Santa Barbara)

• 2000 - Physics, Herbert Kroemer • 1998 - Chemistry, Walter Kohn • 2000 - Chemistry, Alan Heeger • 2004 - Economic Sciences, Finn E. Kydland

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/universities.html


World best infrastructures

World-best Infrastructures

Advanced Light SourceLawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CaliforniaCompleted: 1993 1997 Operating Cost: $18 millionTechnical Specs: High-brightness soft x-ray and ultraviolet radiationNumber of users: 300

Andrew Lawler, Science, Vol 277, Issue 5327, 756-757 , 8 August 1997


France urged to open up lite education

France urged to open up élite education

France's élite grandes écoles should operate less in isolation from the rest of higher education and be integrated more into the university system through the creation of joint courses and degrees and the sharing of facilities such as libraries and laboratories.

Graduates of the écoles have served France well in the past within the state's massive technological programmes in such fields as nuclear energy, aerospace and high-speed trains. But economic needs have now shifted towards a higher education system that fosters contacts between scientists, entrepreneurs and small companies.

The report argues that the selection process has become too élitist, benefiting almost exclusively the children of top civil servants or wealthy industrialists, who have enjoyed a privileged education. This social inequality has widened in recent decades, according to the report, with most entrants to the grandes écoles now coming from just a handful of top schools.

Declan Butler,Nature393, 102 (14 May 1998)


Cole polytechnique

École Polytechnique

(Left) Anne Chopinet, entered the École first ranked in 1972. (Right) Every year, the Polytechnicients take part in the Bastille Day March on the Champs-Elysées.

The Ecole Polytechnique, founded in 1794,is under the authority of the French Department of Defense. it is headed by a general, and employs military personnel in executive, administrative and sport training positions.

a small size: a 'Grande École' is usually of the size of a university department, with at most of 300 to 500 graduates per year.

an approach based on fundamentals, with a strong emphasis on mathematics and physics, and a high level of abstraction.

www.polytechnique.edu


Closing in on the perfect code

Closing in on the perfect code

It happened a decade ago at the 1993 IEEE International Conference on Communications in Geneva, Switzerland. Two French electrical engineers, Claude Berrou and Alain Glavieux, made a flabbergasting claim: they had invented a digital coding scheme that could provide virtually error-free communications at data rates and transmitting-power efficiencies well beyond what most experts thought possible. Few veteran communications engineers believed the results. The Frenchmen, both professors in the electronics department at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Télécommunications de Bretagne in Brest, France, were then unknown in the information-theory community. The claims were so preposterous that many experts didn't even bother to read the paper.

Berrou and Glavieux were right, and their error-correction coding scheme, which has since been dubbed turbo codes, has revolutionized error-correction coding. Chances are fairly good that the next cellphone you buy will have them built in.

With possibilities like these, turbo codes have jumped to the forefront of communications research, with hundreds of groups working on them in companies and universities all over the world. The list includes telecommunications giants like France Télécom and NTT DoCoMo; high-tech heavyweights like Sony, NEC, Lucent, Samsung, Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola, and Qualcomm; hardware and chip manufacturers like Broadcom, Conexant, Comtech AHA, and STMicroelectronics; and start-ups like Turboconcept and iCoding.

Erico Guizzo, IEEE March 2004


Big science

Big science

Science 23 March 2007

CREDIT: CERN


Hamamatsu

浜松ホトニクス株式会(Hamamatsu)

1948 Tokai Electronics Laboratory (original company of Hamamatsu Photonics) established.

1966 New York Business Office opened.

1985 Headquarters Business Office opened and Tsukuba Research Laboratory established.

1990 Central Research Laboratory and Sendai Sales Office opened

2002 Masatoshi Koshiba(小柴昌俊), professor emeritus of University of Tokyo, was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics. Prof. Koshiba was recognized for having established the new field of "Neutrino Astronomy" as a result of research conducted at the Kamiokande, which was equipped with photomultiplier tubes made by HAMAMATSU.

2003 As a first step of new industry to achieve "true health" for mankind, the building of a clinical facility for the Hamamatsu Medical Imaging Center run by the Hamamatsu Medical Photonics Foundation was completed to facilitate the early detection of cancer and dementia.

  • "The Graduate School for the Creation of New

    Photonics Industries" where new industries

    based on light started.


Kamland kamioka liquid scintillator anti neutrino detector www awa tohoku ac jp kamland

KamLAND (Kamioka Liquid scintillator Anti-Neutrino Detector www.awa.tohoku.ac.jp/KamLAND/)


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Artist's conception of the IceCube array of photodetectors now under construction at the South Pole. When complete, IceCube will detect neutrinos originating from collisions of cosmic rays with nitrogen and oxygen in the Northern Hemisphere; neutrinos reaching the detector must first pass through the entire planet.


Big winners big expectations

Big Winners, Big Expectations

Dennis Normile,Science, 317, 1493 14 September 2007


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島津製作所與田中耕一

平成17年度(2005年)部門別売上高構成比

(Left) In 1875, Genzo Shimadzu (1839-1894) starts

a business manufacturing educational physics and chemistry instruments at Kiyamachi-Nijo in Kyoto.

(Right) In 1909, the first medical X-ray in Japan.

Stockholm in 2002


12 billion project

$12 billion project

Reactor reborn. Japan will remove the core of its JT-60 reactor and rebuild it with superconducting magnets to aid the ITER project.

CREDIT: JAPAN ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY

FUSION: Scientists Reap ITER's First Dividends by Daniel Clery

Japanese researchers were disappointed when they lost a bid last year to host the $12 billion International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. In an agreement due to receive provisional approval this week, some $870 million will be spent on fusion-related facilities in Japan, with equal contributions from Japan and the European Union.Science 24 November 2006


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Daniel Clery, FUSION REACTOR: ITER's $12 Billion Gamble,

Science 13 October 2006: Vol. 314. no. 5797, pp. 238 – 242.


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論文被引用率

D. A. KING, The scientific impact of nations, Nature430, 311 - 316 (15 July 2004)


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台灣與其它五國在1997-2001年共十學門的論文影響力(單位:%)

註:電機、材料兩系的論文,不乏發表在物理類學術期刊。我們產學界完全沒有建立起研發無音(或極其淨音)的生產機械或設備的核心能力(包括基礎性研究、材料科技和技術等等),亦不知方向和策略。


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International Comparison of Public Expenditure on Education

Source:UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1999 Edition (Apr. 25 , 2000)(http://web-japan.org/stat/stats/16EDU11.html)


1998 gdp

1998年大學教育總支出與政府部份的支出佔GDP的比重(單位:%)

資料來源:國際經濟合作暨開發組織(www.oecd.org/oecd/),教育部。


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1990年荷蘭、德國大學(含研究生)每位學生的開銷(單位:萬台幣)

據此,每單位學生開銷是,人文社會類:理工農:醫學類 =1:3:5~6。

註:英國醫學院學生的總開銷約是荷蘭的一倍。

Source: L. Goedegebuure and F. van Vught, edited, Comparative Policy Studies in Higher Education, Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS), Enschede and Uitgeverij (1994).


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一致的統計數字

稍加留意歐洲國家的傳統四年制(或德式五年制)大學,可發現國家的人口和大學的數目有高度的一致關係。以2002年的數據為準,人口4.5百萬的挪威有4所大學,人口7.4百萬的瑞士有10所大學,人口16百萬的荷蘭有13所大學。從這些國家得到一關係,即平均每一百萬人口可有一所大學。這些國家中,雖然每單位人口有最多大學的是瑞士,但它卻是全球富有國家中,大學生佔及齡人口比重最低的國家。其次,再對比位於中東地區人口6.4百萬,世界唯一的「科技奇蹟」以色列,若不計那所具有準大學地位的魏茲曼研究所,它6所大學也符合前述的關係。這些國家的傳統大學,不是公立,就是實質的公立。


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退學率和畢業率

L. Goedegebuure, et. al., edited, Higher Education Policy: An International comparative Perspective, Pergamon Press, Oxford(1993).


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瑞士(傳統)大學

Source: www.swiss.org.tw/education/schools.htm

註:瑞士是單位人口產生諾貝爾獎得主最多的國家。


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走進講堂 活學活用

走進講堂口若懸河授課50分鐘,這對大學教授來說是不夠的。大學教授必須熟悉講授範疇的每一細節。他(她)必須能夠編組教材,分成適當章節。強調其關聯性,引介原理,確認假設,探究意義含糊之處,揭示引喻,討論其用途以及說明,詰難、回應、解讀、啟迪、並如Newman教授所說「區別首要和較次要之點」。

R.T. Rhodes, The Creation of the Future: The Role of the American University, pp. 63, Cornell University Press, Ithaca(2001)

一枚原子彈在美國的墨西哥試爆,當時也正試爆點附近的費米,手中握了一些碎紙片。當原子彈的震波傳到他所在的基地營,他就讓手中的紙張碎片落下,然後根據紙張散布的距離,推算出這一個原子彈的能量。費米當時所估算出來的兩萬噸其色炸藥威力,後來證明是驚人的準確。

江才健,《楊振寧傳》,第98頁


Historical background and motivation

Historical Background and Motivation

During the ensuing discussions, the idea emerged slowly to undertake our own design. And suddenly I had become concrete. "Crazy" was my first reaction, and "impossible". The sheer amount of work

appeared as overwhelming. After all, we both had to carry our share of teaching duties back home. But the thought was implanted and continued to occupy our minds.

ACM, A. M.

Turing Award (1984)

Sometime thereafter, events back home suggested that I should take over the important course about System Software. As it was the unwritten rule that it should primarily deal with operating system principles, I hesitated. My scruples were easily justified: After all I had never designed such a system nor a part of it. And how can one teach an engineering subject without first-hand experience!

Project Oberon: The Design of an Operating System and Compiler (www.oberon.ethz.ch/books.html )

Prof. Niklaus Wirth


The oberon project history

The Oberon Project History

Oberon is simultaneously the name of a programming language and of a modern operating system. The Oberon project [WG92] was started at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich (ETHZ) in 1985 by Niklaus Wirth and Jürg Gutknecht. It was originally targeted towards in-house built hardware (Ceres workstation, based on the National Semiconductors 32000 processor family). Later, the decision was made to port the system to popular computer hardware, where it would run natively or on top of the operating system of the host. Today, Oberon is available for many computer platforms.

In 1991, Jürg Gutknecht and his group continued the development towards the ETH Oberon System. The goal was to exploit the inherent potential and features of Oberon to a much larger degree, upgrade the system by a concept of composable and persistent objects, complement the textual user interface by a graphical companion and provide support for the ubiquitous network. In 1995, the first official Oberon System 3 release was finished. Since then, the system has been constantly improved and extended. In 1997, the Release 2.2 including a large palette of applications was published together with a comprehensive hypertext-based documentation. In March 2000, a new release was ready and the system was renamed "ETH Oberon System".


Niklaus wirth 1984 turing award winner

Niklaus Wirth -1984 Turing Award winner

Books

  • Systematic Programming. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1973.

  • PASCAL - User Manual and Report. (with Kathy Jensen) Springer-Verlag, 1974.

  • Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs,1975.

  • Programming in Modula-2. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, New York, 1982.

  • Algorithms & Data Structures. Prentice-Hall, 1986.

  • Programming in Oberon: Steps beyond Pascal and Modula. (with M. Reiser) Addison-Wesley, 1992.

  • Project Oberon. (with J. Gutknecht) Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1992.

  • Digital Circuit Design. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995.

  • Theory and Techniques of Compiler Construction. Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1996.

  • The School of Niklaus Wirth. L. Boszormenyi, J. Gutknecht, G. Pomberger, Eds.D-Punkt Verlag, 2000., and Morgan Kaufmann.

  • Compilerbau. Teubner-Verlag, Stuttgart, 1977.

    Germany versions excluded (www.oberon.ethz.ch).


Dutch researchers freedoms and responsibilities

Dutch researchers' freedoms and responsibilities

Following damaging cuts in public spending last year, a new research policy in the Netherlands promises more freedom to researchers to set priorities. But national interests should not be forgotten.

Universities will submit strategic plans to the NWO every four years, rather than two-yearly reports of progress to the ministry. The NWO, in turn, will craft a national research plan based on universities' submissions. In order to foster awareness of potential economic and social relevance, foresight studies developed by the independent Advisory Council for Science and Technology Policy will be available for universities to take into account as they see fit.

t would be wrong to conclude that the Netherlands has drawn back from the idea that science should help develop the country economically and socially. Rather, the policy shift is an attempt to set a new balance of ministerial responsibility on the one hand and, on the other, to delegate authority to universities and the NWO, trusting them not only to pursue interesting questions but also to keep the national interest in mind.

Nature400, 387 (29 July 1999)


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荷蘭傳統大學成立時間與(全職、兼職)學生人數

註:Groningen有化工系、機械科技系。


4438142

一個荷蘭師資的例子

「我的外祖父是一位高中校長,他擁有物理數學博士學位。我十二歲入學就讀的中學,該校絕大多數的教師擁有博士學位。」

1981年諾貝爾物理獎共同得主Bloembergen教授(www.nobel.se)

註:Bloembergen教授於1920年出生於荷蘭。1938年,入荷蘭Utrecht大學物理系就讀。1940年,他就在物理期刊 Physica上發表學術論文。


The cwts leiden university

The CWTS, Leiden University

The Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS) specializes in advanced quantitative analysis of science and technology performance and the cognitive and organizational structure of science and technology. Research in short- and long-term programmes is carried out for governments, European Union (EU), national and international research organizations, universities and companies. CWTS is an interdisciplinary research institute housed within the Faculty of Social Sciences. The CWTS participates in the Netherlands Graduate School on Science, Technology, and Modern Culture.

  • New Publications

  • Report to NWO:

  • Developing Bibliometric Indicators of Research Performance in Computer Science: An Exploratory Study

  • Bibliometric statistical properties of the 100 largest European universities: prevalent scaling rules in the science system

  • Science and Technology Indicators Summary 2005, Netherlands Observatory of Science and Technology

  • www.cwts.nl/scripts/index.pl


Astronomical inst univ of amsterdam

Astronomical Inst., Univ. of Amsterdam

The astronomical institute of the Univ. of Amsterdam has an outstanding reputation in the field of high energy astrophysics, but as well has built up a substantial low energy research group, which is currently one of the leading groups using ISO data. Observations are based both on terrestrial telescopes of the ESO (European Southern Observatory) and La Palma and various satellite observations with satellites like the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), the X-ray satellites Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), Beppo SAX, Chandra and XMM and the Hubble Space Telescope.

The Institute has the following research groups and projects

  • The X-ray/High-energy astrophysics group 

  • The stellar and binary evolution group

  • The gamma-ray burst group

  • The infrared group

  • The massive stars and stellar wind group

  • The radio pulsar group

  • The faint sky variability survey group

    www.astro.uva.nl/


Head of the department of astrophysics

Head of the Department of Astrophysics

Paul Groot received his degree from the University of Amsterdam, under the supervision of the renowned astronomer Jan van Paradijs. He wrote a Master's thesis on a novel way to measure stellar rotation. In 1995 he started his PhD project on the astrophysics of Cataclysmic Variables: close binaries in which a white dwarf accretes material from a companion via a thin, hot, accretion disc. In February 1997 it was Paul Groot who managed to find the optical counterpart of a Gamma-ray burst, a breakthrough that contributed significantly to (a start of) a solution of the mysteries of Gamma-ray bursts.

After obtaining his PhD (cum laude) in 1999, he moved to the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) of Harvard University on a CfA fellowship. In 2002 he returned to the Netherlands as an assistant professor at the Radboud University Nijmegen, where he and Jan Kuijpers successfully started a new astrophysics group.

www.astro.kun.nl/en/welk_eng.html


Market share held by technical study programms

Market share held by technical study programms

Eindhoven University of Technology:Provides 10 academic Bachelor programmes, 19 Master programmes, 10 postgraduate design programmes, 3 first degree teacher-training programmes in mathematics, physics and chemistry, as well as various other postgraduate courses and programmes.

http://beleidenbestuur.tue.nl/en/facts_and_figures/number_of_students/


3tu cooperation for more innovation power

3TU: cooperation for more innovation power

Through more intensive cooperation, the three universities of technology in the Netherlands enlarge their impact on the field of the Dutch knowledge based economy. In view of this intention, Delft University of Technology, the University of Twente and Eindhoven University of Technology have started a process which should lead to more harmony and co-operation in 2003.

3TU.Centres (www.3tu.nl/en)

3TU.Centre for Multiscale Phenomena 3TU.Centre for Bio-Nano Applications 3TU.Centre for Intelligent Mechatronic Systems 3TU.Centre for Dependable ICT Systems 3TU.Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies 3TU.Centre for Ethics and Technology (2 Mar. 2006)

chairs Flierman (UT), Lundqvist (TU/e) and Van Luijk (TUD) take a look at the test version of the website before it goes ‘live’.

Cabinet approves 50 million Euro for three technology universities

On 24 February 2006 the Dutch cabinet approved a proposal from the three universities of technology in the Netherlands to federate. And 50 million Euro is being made available in five annual installments to combine their research at five centres of excellence. These will help pave the way for the establishment of the Federation of Dutch Universities of Technology (3TU Federation) itself, which is scheduled for 1 April 2007.


Interdisciplinary research center

Interdisciplinary research center

“The integration of electrical engineering, physics, and chemistry in one location within a single research institute is virtually unheard of and, we think, unique in the world”, say David N. Reinhoudt, MESA+ scientific director (Twente Univ. of Technology, the Netherlands). Around 400 people work at MESA+. They include about 100 scientists on the permanent staff, 100 technicians, and 200 Ph.D. students and postdoctoral researchers.

Source: Chemical Engineering News Vol. 79, No. 6, 2001.


Circuits and systems go dutch

Circuits and Systems – Go Dutch

A brief introductionThe research area of the Circuits and Systems group covers the theory and applications of circuits and systems, signal processing, and VLSI circuit and system design methodology.

Our system applications are taken from several areas that require new mathematical insights, eg. wireless communications, distributed networks, radio astronomy and biomedical applications, and we limit ourselves to the central signal processing aspects of these. The objective is to develop efficient signal processing algorithms and to compile these onto embedded systems and the underlying physical circuits. The new insights are incorporated in design tools and actual designs. Here we benefit from the interaction with many other research groups in the EEMCS faculty (Micro-electronics, Communications, Electromagnetics, Multimedia and Computer Science): joint projects with these groups provide relevant applications and a bigger scheme in which our research fits. Signal processing and VLSI design ("algorithms" and "architectures") is really the interface between "hard" technology and "soft" user applications.

Source: http://ens.ewi.tudelft.nl/


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