World war i the war to end all wars
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World War I: The War To End All Wars. Mr. Ermer World History AP Miami Beach Senior High. Causal Factors. Nationalism rises as major factor throughout nineteenth cen. Self-determination Eastern Europe and Balkan nations controlled by Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires

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World War I: The War To End All Wars

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World war i the war to end all wars

World War I:The War To End All Wars

Mr. Ermer

World History AP

Miami Beach Senior High


Causal factors

Causal Factors

  • Nationalism rises as major factor throughout nineteenth cen.

    • Self-determination

    • Eastern Europe and Balkan nations controlled by Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires

      • Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia gain independence from Ottomans

      • Nationalism continues to grow among Slavs

  • Naval arms races and colonial competition

  • Public Opinion

  • Formation of Alliances

    • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

    • Triple Entente: France, Britain, Russia

  • War Plans

    • Germany’s Schlieffen Plan

    • France’s Plan XVII


World war i the war to end all wars

“Till the world comes to an end, the ultimate decision will rest with the sword”


War the summer of 1914

War: The Summer of 1914

  • June 28, 1914: Bosnian terrorist group, The Black Hand, assassinates Archduke Franz Ferdinand (future Austrian king)

  • Serbia rejects Austria-Hungary’s peace offer, due to terms infringing on Serbian sovereignty

  • With Germany’s “full support” Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia on July 28

  • July 29: Russia mobilizes troops to defensive positions

    • Germany sends ultimatum to Russia, note to France

  • August 1: Germany declares war on Russia and France

    • Mobilizes Schlieffen Plan, Belgium refuses Germany passage

  • August 4: Britain sends Germany ultimatum on Belgium


The guns of august stalemate

The Guns of August & Stalemate

  • Expectations for quick war

  • German advance stops along River Marne, trenches form

    • Western Front becomes war of attrition

    • Use of barbed wire, chemical weapons, machine guns, tanks, airplanes, submarines (U-Boats)

    • Bloodletting, deaths, costs rise along both fronts

    • Civilians also seen as targets, cities and trade ships attacked

      • German zeppelins bomb English cities—London

  • Italy leaves Triple Alliances, joins with Triple Entente, alliances renamed Allied Powers

  • Germany & Austria (Central Powers), drive back Russian attack of Poland and Prussia, new defensive lines form

    • Russian defeats undermine Tsar’s authority

    • Bulgaria joins Central Powers


The home front

The Home Front

  • Total War

  • Conscription, Control of Production, Rationing

  • Women in the workplace

    • Dangerous conditions, TNT poisoning

  • Women’s rights and suffrage

  • Propaganda

    • Censorship

    • Advertising

    • Demonization of the enemy

    • Building support and cause for war

  • War Bonds


World war i the war to end all wars

European Colonies in East Asia


Japan the pacific in the great war

Japan & the Pacific in the Great War

  • War spills into European colonies

    • Colonial peoples brought to Europe to fight

    • British commonwealth also called on

  • August 15, 1914: Japan sends Germany ultimatum for land

    • Also immediate withdrawal of German navy from Asia

    • Japan declares war on Germany, take German possessions

      • Australia and New Zealand join in taking German islands

    • 1915: Japan Issues the “Twenty-one Demands”

      • Japan’s imperial motivations for China


World war i the war to end all wars

Europe Colonizes Africa


Africa the middle east in the great war

Africa & the Middle East in the Great War

  • Allies target German colonies in Africa

    • Many troops die of tropical and mosquito borne diseases

  • Ottoman Empire joins Central Powers, Britain attacks

    • Britain attempts control of the Dardanelles at Gallipoli

      • Turks under Mustafa Kamel turn back British

    • 1913: Trukification pogrom targets Armenians

    • Arab self-determination and T.E. Lawrence

  • Ottoman army performs poorly, Allies gain territory


The russian revolution

The Russian Revolution

  • Tsar mismanages the war, grows unpopular

    • Russian economy cannot handle total war

  • The March Revolution

    • Tsar Nicholas II abdicates amidst protests, mutinies, famine

    • Provisional government shares power with soviets (unions)

    • Provisional government popular, until it supports Allies

  • Vladimir IlyichUlyanov (Lenin) takes control of Bolsheviks

  • November Revolution

    • Lenin and Bolsheviks take control of government

    • Socialist slogans, communist reorganization

    • Sign Treaty of Brest-Litovsk to take Russia out of war

      • Russia gives much territory to Germany in exchange for peace


The united states the great war

The United States & The Great War

  • At first United States stays out of the war

  • British navy blocks ships from Germany

  • German submarines bomb British ships

  • May 7, 1915: Germans bomb Lusitania killing over 100 American citizens

    • U.S. angry, Germans suspend sub warfare

  • British navy gains edge, Germans break promise, re-launch subs

  • 1917: U.S. enters war against Central Powers

  • March 1918: German Gen. Lundendorff unsuccessfully leads new offensive on Western Front—defeat at hand

    • September 30, 1918: Bulgaria capitulates

    • October 30: Ottoman Empire signs armistice

    • November 4: Austria-Hungary surrenders

    • November 11: Germany accepts armistice


Aftermath of war

Aftermath of War

  • Physical destruction (northern France & Belgium=worse)

  • Influenza Pandemic of 1918

  • The Paris Peace Conference

    • Georges Clemenceau, Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, and Woodrow Wilson dominate the proceedings

      • Central Powers not invited to Peace Conference

    • Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points

      • Open covenants, self-determination (for “civilized nations”), freedom of the seas, free trade, rights for colonial peoples

      • League of Nations

    • Harsh peace for Germany and Austria

  • Ataturk and modern, secular Turkish nationalism

  • The Mandate System

    • Middle East under French and British control

  • Shifting global order: colonial nationalism, weakened Europe


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