The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 24

The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 58 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column. The spine or vertebral column : protects the spinal cord supports the head and body. 26 bones: 24 vertebrae , the sacrum, and coccyx. Regions Cervical (C) – 7 v Thoracic (T) – 12 v Lumbar (L) – 5 v Sacral (S) Coccygeal (Co).

Download Presentation

The Axial Skeleton – part 2 The Vertebral Column

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

The Axial Skeleton – part 2The Vertebral Column

  • The spine or vertebral column:

    • protects the spinal cord

    • supports the head and body

  • 26 bones:

    • 24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and coccyx

  • Regions

    • Cervical (C) – 7 v

    • Thoracic (T) – 12 v

    • Lumbar (L) – 5 v

    • Sacral (S)

    • Coccygeal (Co)


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Curvatures

    • Cervical curve

    • Thoracic curve

    • Lumbar curve

    • Sacral curve

  • Primary Curves

    • Thoracic and sacral curves - present during fetal development

    • aka accommodation curves-accommodate internal organs

  • Secondary Curves

    • Lumbar and cervical curves-appear after birth

    • Aka compensation curves-shift body weight for upright posture


Vertebrae

Vertebrae

  • 3 Parts of a Vertebra

    • vertebral body (centrum)-transfers weight along the spine

    • vertebral arch-posterior margin of vertebral foramen

    • articular processes-lateral projections between laminae and pedicles


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Intervertebral Discs

    • Are pads of fibrocartilage

    • Separate the vertebral bodies

    • Absorb shocks

Figure 7–17d,e


Vertebral regions

Vertebral Regions

  • Vertebrae are numbered:

    • by region, from top to bottom

    • C1 articulates with skull, L5 with sacrum

  • Vertebrae of each region:

    • have characteristics determined by functions

Figure 7–16


The cervical vertebrae

The Cervical Vertebrae

  • Characteristics of C1–C7:

    • small body (support only head)

    • large vertebral foramen (largest part of spinal cord)

    • C1 (atlas) has no spinous process all others have short spinous processes

    • tip of each spinous process is notched (bifid)


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Atlas (C1):

    • articulates with occiptal condyles of skull

    • has no body or spinous process

    • has a large, round foramen within anterior and posterior arches

  • Axis (C2):

    • supports the atlas

    • has heavy spinous process

    • to attach muscles of head and neck

    • Has dens(tooth)


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Vertebra prominens (C7):

    • transitions to thoracic vertebrae

    • has a long spinous process with a broad tubercle

  • Whiplash:

    • a traumatic dislocation of cervical vertebrae


The thoracic vertebrae

The Thoracic Vertebrae

  • Characteristics T1–T12:

    • have heart-shaped bodies

    • larger bodies than in C1–C7

    • smaller vertebral foramen than in C1–C7

    • long, slender spinous processes

    • Dorsolateral surfaces of body have costal facets-which articulate with heads of ribs


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • T1–T8 articulate with 2 pairs of ribs-at superior and inferiorcostal facets

  • T9–T11 articulate with 1 pair of ribs

  • T1–T10:

    • Ribs at T1–T10:-contact costal and transverse costal facets

  • T10–T12 transition to lumbar vertebrae


The lumbar vertebrae

The Lumbar Vertebrae

  • Characteristics L1–L5:

    • largest vertebrae

    • oval-shaped bodies

    • thicker bodies than T1–T12

    • no costal or transverse costal facets

    • triangular vertebral foramen

  • Transverse processes- slender

  • Spinous process-short, heavy

  • for attachment of lower back muscles


Comparing vertebrae

Comparing Vertebrae

Table 7–2


The sacrum and coccyx

The Sacrum and Coccyx

  • Characteristics - sacrum:

    • is curved, more in males than in females

    • protects reproductive, urinary, and digestive organs

    • attaches-the axial skeleton to pelvic girdle of appendicular skeleton

    • broad muscles that move the thigh

  • The adult sacrum:

    • consists of 5 fused sacral vertebrae

    • fuses between puberty and ages 25–30

    • leaving transverse lines


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Sacral cornua:

    • horn-shaped

    • formed by laminae of the 5th sacral vertebra

    • which do not meet at midline

  • Sacral canal:

    • replaces the vertebral canal

  • Sacral hiatus:

    • opening at the inferior end of the sacral canal

    • formed by ridges of sacral cornua

    • covered by connective tissues


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Lateral sacral crest:

    • attach to muscles of lower back and hip

  • Auricular surface:

    • articulates with pelvic girdle (sacroiliac joint)

  • Median sacral crest:

    • fused spinous processes

  • Sacral tuberosity:

    • attaches ligaments of the sacroiliac joint


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Sacral promontory-at the center of the base

  • Apex-the narrow inferior portion articulates with the coccyx

  • 4 Regions of the Sacrum

    • Base-the broad superior surface

    • Ala-wings at either side of the base to attach muscles


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Characteristics - coccyx:

    • attaches ligaments and a constricting muscle of the anus

    • mature coccyx-consists of 3 to 5 fused coccygeal vertebrae

  • first 2 coccygeal vertebrae-have transverse processes and have unfused vertebral arches

  • coccygeal cornua-formed by laminae of 1st coccygeal vertebra


The thoracic cage

The Thoracic Cage

  • The skeleton of the chest-supports the thoracic cavity

  • Consists of:

    • thoracic vertebrae

    • ribs

    • sternum (breastbone)

  • Rib Cage - formed of ribs and sternum


Articulations of ribs and vertebrae

Articulations of Ribs and Vertebrae

  • Functions

    • Protects organs of the thoracic cavity-heart, lungs, and thymus

  • Attaches muscles:

    • for respiration

    • of the vertebral column

    • of the pectoral girdle

    • of the upper limbs

Figure 7–22b


The ribs

The Ribs

  • Functions

    • are flexible

    • are mobile

    • can absorb shock

  • Rib movements (breathing):

    • affect width and depth of thoracic cage

    • changing its volume

  • Ribs (costae)-12 pairs of long, curved, flat bones extending from the thoracic vertebrae


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Ribs 8–12 (false ribs):

    • do not attach directly to the sternum

  • Ribs 1–7 (true ribs)

    • vertebrosternal ribs

    • connected to the sternum by costal cartilages

  • Vertebrochondral ribs (ribs 8–10):

    • fuse together

    • merge with cartilage before reaching the sternum

  • Floating or vertebral ribs (ribs 11–12):

    • connect only to the vertebrae

    • have no connection with the sternum


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • Structures of the Ribs

    • The head (capitulum):

      • at the vertebral end of the rib

      • has superior and inferior articular facets

  • The neck:

    • the short area between the head and the tubercle

  • The tubercle (tuberculum):

    • a small dorsal elevation

    • has an auricular facet that contacts the facet of its thoracic vertebra (at T1–T10 only)

  • The tubercular body (shaft):

    • attaches muscles of the pectoral girdle and trunk

    • attaches to the intercostal muscles which move the ribs


The sternum

The Sternum

  • 3 parts

    • 1-manubrium:

      • superior portion of sternum

      • broad, triangular shape

      • articulates with collarbones (clavicles) & cartilages of 1st rib pair

      • has a jugular notch between clavicular articulations

  • The sternum-a flat bone in the midline of the thoracic wall

  • 2-sternal body:

    • tongue-shaped

    • attaches to the manubrium & costal cartilages of ribs 2–7


The axial skeleton part 2 the vertebral column

  • 3-xiphoid process:

    • smallest part of the sternum

    • attaches to the sternal body


  • Login