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History of Conservation Biology. Development of Western Conservation Attitudes. philosophies and ideals may be traced to the late 1800s pragmatic utilitarianism - natural resource disciplines and government agencies romantic preservationists - wilderness advocacy

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Development of western conservation attitudes
Development of Western Conservation Attitudes

  • philosophies and ideals may be traced to the late 1800s

  • pragmatic utilitarianism- natural resource disciplines and government agencies

  • romantic preservationists- wilderness advocacy

  • science/ecology- The Nature Conservancy




Impacts of industrial and scientific revolutions
Impacts of Industrial and Scientific Revolutions democratic view - increased access of individuals to natural resources; incentive to exploit nature.

  • Provided new means of exploiting resources and a new concept of nature.


Cycles of crisis and activity
Cycles of Crisis and Activity democratic view - increased access of individuals to natural resources; incentive to exploit nature.


Transcendentalism 1850 1865
Transcendentalism (1850-1865) democratic view - increased access of individuals to natural resources; incentive to exploit nature.

  • The alteration of the eastern landscape stimulated and aesthetic appreciation of the natural areas that remained.


Ralph waldo emerson

rejected material goals and sought harmony through the contemplation of nature.

Ralph Waldo Emerson


Henry david thoreau

naturalist, author, and philosopher contemplation of nature.

"In wilderness is the preservation of the world."

Henry David Thoreau


Closing of the western frontier 1890 1905
Closing of the Western Frontier (1890-1905) contemplation of nature.

  • By the end of the 19th century settlement in North America had reached the Pacific Ocean.


Federal agencies were established
Federal Agencies Were Established contemplation of nature.

  • National Park system- 1872

  • Forest Service- 1889

  • Bureau of Reclamation- 1902

  • National Refuge system- 1903


John muir 1838 1914

naturalist and writer who stimulated interest in the natural history of the western mountains.

John Muir (1838-1914)


Muir s accomplishments
Muir’s Accomplishments history of the western mountains.

  • Established Sierra Club

  • Met with government officials

  • Wrote to inform the public. Sacramento Record-Union

  • believed that land had recreational and cultural significance.



Gifford pinchot

Prussian trained forester territories

1st director of Forestry in US

Gifford Pinchot


Dust bowl era 1930 1940
Dust Bowl Era (1930-1940) territories

  • Agriculture spread into marginal lands

  • Water erosion and flooding plagued the Midwest while drought and wind erosion plagued the Central Plains.

  • Economic Depression

  • Widespread recognition of new concepts in Ecology.


Population explosion environmental pollution 1960 1975
Population Explosion & Environmental Pollution (1960-1975) territories

  • Economic expansion

  • Explosive growth of technology

  • Human population growth - post-war baby boom

  • Industrial growth


Increased environmental awareness
Increased Environmental Awareness territories

  • Wilderness Act- 1964

  • Environmental Protection Agency- 1970

  • Endangered Species Act- 1973


The biodiversity crisis 1990
The Biodiversity Crisis (1990- ?) territories

  • Geographic Information Systems

  • National Biological Service- 1993 Consolidated research personnel from various federal bureaus.

  • Emergence of Conservation Biology as a discipline


Results of european colonization of n america rapid alteration of natural ecosystems
Results of European Colonization of N America: territoriesRapid Alteration of Natural Ecosystems

  • dam building

  • predator elimination

  • species introductions

  • logging forests

  • mining

  • overgrazing

  • erosion

  • litter and pollution


The pioneer spirit
”The Pioneer Spirit" territories

  • wilderness was an enemy that needed to be conquered




Conservationists vs environmentalists
Conservationists -vs- Environmentalists consider species preservation an end in itself


Idealism vs realism
Idealism vs Realism consider species preservation an end in itself

  • conservationists are idealistic

  • Idealism- Land has inherent aesthetic value to man.

  • Realism- Most people only see as land having economic value.


Rachel carson
Rachel Carson consider species preservation an end in itself


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