History of conservation biology
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 26

History of Conservation Biology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 92 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

History of Conservation Biology. Development of Western Conservation Attitudes. philosophies and ideals may be traced to the late 1800s pragmatic utilitarianism - natural resource disciplines and government agencies romantic preservationists - wilderness advocacy

Download Presentation

History of Conservation Biology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


History of Conservation Biology


Development of Western Conservation Attitudes

  • philosophies and ideals may be traced to the late 1800s

  • pragmatic utilitarianism- natural resource disciplines and government agencies

  • romantic preservationists- wilderness advocacy

  • science/ecology- The Nature Conservancy


  • Western conservation philosophy is rooted in Judeo-Christian view of nature as created to serve the human race.


  • Political, economic, and intellectual attitudes stem from a democratic view - increased access of individuals to natural resources; incentive to exploit nature.


Impacts of Industrial and Scientific Revolutions

  • Provided new means of exploiting resources and a new concept of nature.


Cycles of Crisis and Activity


Transcendentalism (1850-1865)

  • The alteration of the eastern landscape stimulated and aesthetic appreciation of the natural areas that remained.


rejected material goals and sought harmony through the contemplation of nature.

Ralph Waldo Emerson


naturalist, author, and philosopher

"In wilderness is the preservation of the world."

Henry David Thoreau


Closing of the Western Frontier (1890-1905)

  • By the end of the 19th century settlement in North America had reached the Pacific Ocean.


Federal Agencies Were Established

  • National Park system- 1872

  • Forest Service- 1889

  • Bureau of Reclamation- 1902

  • National Refuge system- 1903


naturalist and writer who stimulated interest in the natural history of the western mountains.

John Muir (1838-1914)


Muir’s Accomplishments

  • Established Sierra Club

  • Met with government officials

  • Wrote to inform the public. Sacramento Record-Union

  • believed that land had recreational and cultural significance.


Established 86 wildlife refuges in 17 states and three territories

Theodore Roosevelt


Prussian trained forester

1st director of Forestry in US

Gifford Pinchot


Dust Bowl Era (1930-1940)

  • Agriculture spread into marginal lands

  • Water erosion and flooding plagued the Midwest while drought and wind erosion plagued the Central Plains.

  • Economic Depression

  • Widespread recognition of new concepts in Ecology.


Population Explosion & Environmental Pollution (1960-1975)

  • Economic expansion

  • Explosive growth of technology

  • Human population growth - post-war baby boom

  • Industrial growth


Increased Environmental Awareness

  • Wilderness Act- 1964

  • Environmental Protection Agency- 1970

  • Endangered Species Act- 1973


The Biodiversity Crisis (1990- ?)

  • Geographic Information Systems

  • National Biological Service- 1993 Consolidated research personnel from various federal bureaus.

  • Emergence of Conservation Biology as a discipline


Results of European Colonization of N America:Rapid Alteration of Natural Ecosystems

  • dam building

  • predator elimination

  • species introductions

  • logging forests

  • mining

  • overgrazing

  • erosion

  • litter and pollution


”The Pioneer Spirit"

  • wilderness was an enemy that needed to be conquered


  • Initially, reservations were created mainly for the preservation of timber and for recreational uses rather than for the protection of native species.


  • It was not until the mid 1900's that people began to consider species preservation an end in itself


Conservationists -vs- Environmentalists


Idealism vs Realism

  • conservationists are idealistic

  • Idealism- Land has inherent aesthetic value to man.

  • Realism- Most people only see as land having economic value.


Rachel Carson


  • Login