3d to 2d
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3D to 2D. Orthographic Projection Delineation Techniques Clipping Plane Methodology. Graphical Representation. The vast majority is 2D representation of 3D objects Technical Documentation – Construction Documents, basic communication with peers

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3d to 2d

3D to 2D

Orthographic Projection

Delineation Techniques

Clipping Plane Methodology

graphical representation
Graphical Representation
  • The vast majority is 2D representation of 3D objects
  • Technical Documentation – Construction Documents, basic communication with peers
  • 3D conception –> 2D representation –> 3D realization
  • Computer Models can be “photographed” – images and line drawings can be generated much faster than can be drawn
  • Extraction Methodology – design in 3D, extract 2D
orthographic projection
Orthographic Projection
  • A means of representing a three-dimensional (3D) object in two dimensions (2D)
  • A perspective projection with a hypothetical viewpoint—e.g., one where the camera lies an infinite distance away from the object and has an infinite focal length, or "zoom". (parallel projection)
    • Multi-view Orthographic Projection
    • Axonometric Orthographic Projection

Non-Orthographic (Perspective)

Orthographic

multi view orthographic
Multi-View Orthographic
  • Each projection plane is parallel to one of the coordinate axes of the object resulting in visual distortion / abstraction
architectural plan
Architectural Plan
  • Also called plan view. a drawing made to scale to represent the top view or a horizontal section of a structure
architectural section
Architectural Section
  • A representation of an object as it would appear if cut by a plane, showing its internal structure.
architectural elevation
Architectural Elevation
  • A drawing or design that represents an object or structure as being projected geometrically on a vertical plane parallel to one of its sides.
axonometric
Axonometric
  • Axonometric
    • A skewed Orthographic Projection so that multiple sides are visible at once
    • a three-dimensional object is represented by a drawing having all axes drawn to exact scale, resulting in the optical distortion of diagonals and curves
      • Trimetric – arbitrary foreshortening
      • Isometric
isometric
Isometric
  • a three-dimensional object is represented by a drawing having the horizontal edges of the object drawn usually at a 30° angle and all verticals projected perpendicularly from a horizontal base, all lines being drawn to scale
clipping planes
Clipping Planes
  • Uses Orthographic Cameras – Relatively Universal
  • Extracts from solids or surfaces alike
  • Uses two planes perpendicular to the focal length of the camera – Near Clipping Plane and Far Clipping Plane
  • Only displays graphical information between the near clip and the far clipping plane
plotting to file with clipping planes
Plotting to File with Clipping Planes
  • The clipping plane method can be used in conjunction with the plot to file method. Plotting to file allows three important options in a single method –
    • Allows rendering – allows the use of hidden line projection to “hide” lines that should be obscured with planes in 3D space.
    • Flattens the drawing – gets rid of the Z dimension and flattens the 3D model to a 2D vector drawing
    • Separates the line drawings – Drawings can be edited in respect to themselves without adversely altering the model
plotting to file with clipping planes autocad method
Plotting to File with Clipping Planes – AutoCAD Method
  • Import the 3D model
  • Page Setup Manager for a real-scale vector file
  • Set up the layout for the desired view
    • View
    • Scale
  • Use clipping planes to “cut”
  • Use hidden line rendering on the viewport
  • Plot to file
  • Import plotted file into a [new] drawing
  • Make it pretty
    • Poche
    • Entourage
    • Line weight
plotting to file with clipping planes1
Plotting to File with Clipping Planes
  • 3 datasets to manage
    • Original model file
      • Multiple layouts preferably – one for each “view”
    • Vector files (DXB)
      • Individual plot files with extensions that are not .dwg.
      • These are not opened, but imported
    • The Presentation file
      • All vector files are imported here for cleanup and delineation
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