Vulnerability of buildings to earthquake ground shaking
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VULNERABILITY OF BUILDINGS TO EARTHQUAKE GROUND SHAKING. GENERALIZED VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS BASED ON CHANGES IN A BUILDING’S ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA. HAZARDS. EXPOSURE.

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VULNERABILITY OF BUILDINGS TO EARTHQUAKE GROUND SHAKING

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Vulnerability of buildings to earthquake ground shaking

VULNERABILITY OF BUILDINGS TO EARTHQUAKE GROUND SHAKING

GENERALIZED VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS BASED ON CHANGES IN

A BUILDING’S ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN

Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA


Vulnerability of buildings to earthquake ground shaking

HAZARDS

EXPOSURE

VULNERABILITY

LOCATION

ELEMENTS OF RISK

RISK


Building damage death toll reached 230 000

BUILDING DAMAGE: DEATH TOLL REACHED 230,,000


Vulnerability of buildings to earthquake ground shaking

CAUSES OF DAMAGE

INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING

SOIL AMPLIFICATION

PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)

IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN

EARTHQUAKES

TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP

CASE HISTORIES

LACK OF DETAILING AND POOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

LACK OF ATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS


Goal regularity in building elevations and simplicity in floor plans

GOAL: REGULARITY IN BUILDING ELEVATIONS AND SIMPLICITY IN FLOOR PLANS

EFFECTIVE WHEN IMPLEMENTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH BUILDING REGULATIONS DURING THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PHASES ---

NOT AS EFFECTIVE WHEN ADDED BY RETROFIT OR BY STRENGTHENING


Vulnerability of buildings to earthquake ground shaking

ANY COMMUNITY CAN ASSESS THE VULNERABILITY OF ITS BUILDINGS BY EXAMINING EACH BUILDING’S ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN

  • An Incremental Process

CLARIFY VULNERABILTIES

INDENTIFY OPTIONS

IMPLEMENT BEST SOLUTION

OPTIMIZE

INITATE ACTIONS

EVALUATE


Source of information

SOURCE OF INFORMATION

  • The following graphic assessments of building vulnerability to earthquake ground shaking were developed by an insurance company and provided to other organizations for educational uses.


Building elevations

BUILDING ELEVATIONS

  • Horizontal and vertical changes in symmetry, mass, and stiffness—deviations from regularity--- will increase a building’s vulnerability to damage from ground shaking.


An important note

AN IMPORTANT NOTE

  • NOTE: Analysis of the effects of changes in the local site geology and the construction materials, key parameters in controlling a building’s performance, are NOT considered here.


Analysis of vulnerability

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

None, if attention given to foundation and non-structural elements. Rocking may crack foundation and structure. X-Cracks around windows.

1-2

Box


Damaged ho use china

DAMAGED HOUSE:CHINA


Asymmetry and lateral changes ch ina

ASYMmETRY and lateral changes: CHINA


Analysis of vulnerability1

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

None, if attention given to foundation and non structural elements. Rocking may crack foundation.

1

Pyramid


Analysis of vulnerability2

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Top heavy, asymmetrical structure may fail at foundation due to rocking and overturning.

4 - 6

Inverted Pyramid


Analysis of vulnerability3

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry and horizontal transition in mass, stiffness and damping may cause failure where lower and upper structures join.

5 - 6

“L”- Shaped Building


Analysis of vulnerability4

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Vertical transition and asymmetry may cause failure where lower part is attached to tower.

3 - 5

Inverted “T”


Analysis of vulnerability5

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Vertical transition in mass, stiffness, and damping may cause failure at foundation and transition points at each floor.

2 - 3

Multiple Setbacks


Analysis of vulnerability6

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Top heavy asymmetrical structure may fail at transition point and foundation due to rocking and overturning.

4 - 5

Overhang


Analysis of vulnerability7

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal and vertical transitions in mass and stiffness may cause failure on soft side of first floor; rocking and overturning.

6 - 7

Partial “Soft” Story


Analysis of vulnerability8

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Vertical transitions in mass and stiffness may cause failure on transition points between first and second floors.

8 - 10

“Soft” First Floor


The typical soft storey building in turkey

THE TYPICAL SOFT-STOREY BUILDING IN TURKEY


Analysis of vulnerability9

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal and vertical transitions in mass and stiffness may cause failure at transition points and possible overturning.

9 - 10

Combination of “Soft” Story and Overhang


Analysis of vulnerability10

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal transition in stiffness of soft story columns may cause failure of columns at foundation and/or contact points with structure.

10

Building on Sloping Ground


Soft story building on sloping ground china triggered landslides

SOFT STORY BUILDING ON SLOPING GROUND: CHINA TRIGGERED LANDSLIDES


Analysis of vulnerability11

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal and vertical transition in stiffness and cause failure of individual members.

8 - 9

Theaters and Assembly Halls


Analysis of vulnerability12

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal and vertical transition in mass and stiffness may cause failure columns.

9 - 10

Sports Stadiums


Building floor plans

BUILDING FLOOR PLANS

  • CHANGING FLOOR PLANS FROM SIMPLE TO COMPLEX AND FROM SYMMETRICAL TO ASYMMETRICAL WILL INCREASE A BUILDING’S VULNERABILITY TO GROUND SHAKING.


Analysis of vulnerability13

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

None, if symmetrical layout maintained.

1

Box


Analysis of vulnerability14

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Differences in length and width will cause differences in strength, differential movement, and possible overturning.

2 - 4

Rectangle


Analysis of vulnerability15

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry will cause torsion and enhance damage at corners.

2 - 4

Street Corner


Analysis of vulnerability16

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry will enhance damage at corner regions.

5 - 10

“U” - Shape


Analysis of vulnerability17

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Open space in center reduces resistance and enhance damage at corner regions.

4

Courtyard in Corner


Analysis of vulnerability18

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry will cause torsion and enhance damage at intersection and corners.

8

“L” - Shape


Torsion ch ina

torsion:CHINA


Analysis of vulnerability19

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Directional variation in stiffness will enhance damage at intersecting corner.

5 - 7

“H” - Shape


Analysis of vulnerability20

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry and directional variation in stiffness will enhance torsion and damage at intersecting.

8 - 10

Complex Floor Plan


Analysis of vulnerability21

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry and irregularities will cause torsion and enhance damage along boundaries and at corners.

5- 9

Curved Plan


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