vulnerability of buildings to earthquake ground shaking
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VULNERABILITY OF BUILDINGS TO EARTHQUAKE GROUND SHAKING. GENERALIZED VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS BASED ON CHANGES IN A BUILDING’S ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA. HAZARDS. EXPOSURE.

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vulnerability of buildings to earthquake ground shaking

VULNERABILITY OF BUILDINGS TO EARTHQUAKE GROUND SHAKING

GENERALIZED VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENTS BASED ON CHANGES IN

A BUILDING’S ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN

Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA

slide2

HAZARDS

EXPOSURE

VULNERABILITY

LOCATION

ELEMENTS OF RISK

RISK

slide4

CAUSES OF DAMAGE

INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING

SOIL AMPLIFICATION

PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE)

IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN

EARTHQUAKES

TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP

CASE HISTORIES

LACK OF DETAILING AND POOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

LACK OF ATTENTION TO NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

goal regularity in building elevations and simplicity in floor plans

GOAL: REGULARITY IN BUILDING ELEVATIONS AND SIMPLICITY IN FLOOR PLANS

EFFECTIVE WHEN IMPLEMENTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH BUILDING REGULATIONS DURING THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PHASES ---

NOT AS EFFECTIVE WHEN ADDED BY RETROFIT OR BY STRENGTHENING

slide6

ANY COMMUNITY CAN ASSESS THE VULNERABILITY OF ITS BUILDINGS BY EXAMINING EACH BUILDING’S ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN

  • An Incremental Process

CLARIFY VULNERABILTIES

INDENTIFY OPTIONS

IMPLEMENT BEST SOLUTION

OPTIMIZE

INITATE ACTIONS

EVALUATE

source of information
SOURCE OF INFORMATION
  • The following graphic assessments of building vulnerability to earthquake ground shaking were developed by an insurance company and provided to other organizations for educational uses.
building elevations
BUILDING ELEVATIONS
  • Horizontal and vertical changes in symmetry, mass, and stiffness—deviations from regularity--- will increase a building’s vulnerability to damage from ground shaking.
an important note
AN IMPORTANT NOTE
  • NOTE: Analysis of the effects of changes in the local site geology and the construction materials, key parameters in controlling a building’s performance, are NOT considered here.
analysis of vulnerability
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

None, if attention given to foundation and non-structural elements. Rocking may crack foundation and structure. X-Cracks around windows.

1-2

Box

analysis of vulnerability1
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

None, if attention given to foundation and non structural elements. Rocking may crack foundation.

1

Pyramid

analysis of vulnerability2
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Top heavy, asymmetrical structure may fail at foundation due to rocking and overturning.

4 - 6

Inverted Pyramid

analysis of vulnerability3
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry and horizontal transition in mass, stiffness and damping may cause failure where lower and upper structures join.

5 - 6

“L”- Shaped Building

analysis of vulnerability4
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Vertical transition and asymmetry may cause failure where lower part is attached to tower.

3 - 5

Inverted “T”

analysis of vulnerability5
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Vertical transition in mass, stiffness, and damping may cause failure at foundation and transition points at each floor.

2 - 3

Multiple Setbacks

analysis of vulnerability6
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Top heavy asymmetrical structure may fail at transition point and foundation due to rocking and overturning.

4 - 5

Overhang

analysis of vulnerability7
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal and vertical transitions in mass and stiffness may cause failure on soft side of first floor; rocking and overturning.

6 - 7

Partial “Soft” Story

analysis of vulnerability8
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Vertical transitions in mass and stiffness may cause failure on transition points between first and second floors.

8 - 10

“Soft” First Floor

analysis of vulnerability9
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal and vertical transitions in mass and stiffness may cause failure at transition points and possible overturning.

9 - 10

Combination of “Soft” Story and Overhang

analysis of vulnerability10
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal transition in stiffness of soft story columns may cause failure of columns at foundation and/or contact points with structure.

10

Building on Sloping Ground

analysis of vulnerability11
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal and vertical transition in stiffness and cause failure of individual members.

8 - 9

Theaters and Assembly Halls

analysis of vulnerability12
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

BUILDING ELEVATION

LOCATIONS OF POTENTIAL FAILURE

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Horizontal and vertical transition in mass and stiffness may cause failure columns.

9 - 10

Sports Stadiums

building floor plans
BUILDING FLOOR PLANS
  • CHANGING FLOOR PLANS FROM SIMPLE TO COMPLEX AND FROM SYMMETRICAL TO ASYMMETRICAL WILL INCREASE A BUILDING’S VULNERABILITY TO GROUND SHAKING.
analysis of vulnerability13
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

None, if symmetrical layout maintained.

1

Box

analysis of vulnerability14
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Differences in length and width will cause differences in strength, differential movement, and possible overturning.

2 - 4

Rectangle

analysis of vulnerability15
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry will cause torsion and enhance damage at corners.

2 - 4

Street Corner

analysis of vulnerability16
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry will enhance damage at corner regions.

5 - 10

“U” - Shape

analysis of vulnerability17
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Open space in center reduces resistance and enhance damage at corner regions.

4

Courtyard in Corner

analysis of vulnerability18
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry will cause torsion and enhance damage at intersection and corners.

8

“L” - Shape

analysis of vulnerability19
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Directional variation in stiffness will enhance damage at intersecting corner.

5 - 7

“H” - Shape

analysis of vulnerability20
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry and directional variation in stiffness will enhance torsion and damage at intersecting.

8 - 10

Complex Floor Plan

analysis of vulnerability21
ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY

FLOOR PLAN

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

RELATIVE VULERABILITY [1 (Best) to 10 (Worst)]

Asymmetry and irregularities will cause torsion and enhance damage along boundaries and at corners.

5- 9

Curved Plan

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